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Try our service and you will realize that buying an essay from a reliable writing service is a real pleasure Best Websites To Buy An written college Essays Online.Oral History One with Kevin Sack This following is based on an interview with Kevin Sack conducted by Leslie Googoo, June 1998.Sack limited his discussion of tribal rites, however, out of respect for the sacred nature of Mi’kmaq traditional practices.

In 1984-85, Indian Brook was visited by a native of the western tribes, a medicine man named Albert Lightning.He had concerns about the Nova Scotia Mi’kmaq, believing they were losing touch with their culture and traditions.Lightning’s visit, however, there has been a renewed interest in Mi’kmaw practices, traditional beliefs, and language, though there is always more to be learned.As the Mi’kmaw people say, there must be a life long journey for knowledge.

Kevin Sack had the privilege of meeting Mr.Lightning during his visit to Indian Brook, and has tried to practice what he learned since that time.Kevin Sack’s traditional name is “Peace Maker”, and he continues to learn about the ways of his people.The following was shared by Peace Maker.Ceremonies There are a number of types of ceremonies – Fasting, The Vision Quest, Talking Circle, Pipe, Sweet Grass, and the Sweat Lodge Ceremony.

Items involved in these ceremonies include sweet grasses, cedar, sage, tobacco, pipe, drum, rocks, and eagle feathers.These all play their individual roles in asking and receiving from the Creator.Fasting Fasting plays an important role in different ceremonies, like the Pipe and Sweat Lodge Ceremonies.A person has to fast for four days before entering into these ceremonies, and this includes food, drugs, and alcohol.The purpose of fasting is to cleanse the body and mind, the better to communicate with the Creator.

Vision Quest A Vision Quest traditionally takes place when a person comes to a critical moment in his or her life, when a new direction or better purpose must be chosen.To do this, he or she must fast and look to the Creator for guidance.A Vision Quest is a very personal venture, and quite sacred to the Mi’kmaq.Talking Circle Talking Circles have been used for centuries by our Mi’kmaw ancestors.At present, Talking Circles are growing in importance in Mi’kmaw communities.

Whenever there is a problem or crisis situation in a community, a Talking Circle is called for all ages.There could be one Talking Circle or more.There is no special time for a Talking Circle to commence, and anybody can call one.It is considered very sacred because it is a form of counselling.Different symbols are held during a Talking Circle to ensure that the person holding the symbol may speak without interruption.

The symbol could be a walking stick, sweet grass braid, a rock, or a pipe.(The pipe, however, is most commonly used in an elders’ Talking Circle).The Pipe Ceremony The pipe is used to exchange information after a period of fasting.It is usually held by a healer or medicine man.It is said that this sacred Mi’kmaw pipe was last seen centuries ago, during a massacre in the area now known as Kentville in Nova Scotia.

During the massacre, several of the Mi’kmaq fled westward, and it is believed that someone out among the western tribes has possession of this sacred pipe to this day.Sweet Grass Ceremony and Other Ceremonial Items Sweet grass is found between bodies of salt and fresh water.However, it is generally difficult to locate because it blends in with regular grass.On windy days , one is able to smell the sweet aroma of this grass.The root ends of sweet grass are a shade of purple.

Sweet grass is sacred to the First Nations tribes across Canada.It is used in various ceremonies, and is often woven into a braid.The smoke from burning sweet grass is used for smudging.The drum represents the centre of all life and creation.The drum beat is the heart beat of Mother Earth.

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Sage is a wild plant that is found in Nova Scotia and the western provinces, commonly used among the Mi’kmaq for smudging.There are two types of sage – horse sage, found along beaches, and buffalo sage which is normally found out west Central, AP Vertical Teams, Pre-AP, SAT, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College. Board.   For these reasons, the AP teacher plays a significant role in a student's academic journey.   It has been several years since the College Board developed a new Teacher's Guide for AP U.S. History, and..

There are two types of sage – horse sage, found along beaches, and buffalo sage which is normally found out west.

Tobacco is used to send a message to ask for the help of the people in your community Central, AP Vertical Teams, Pre-AP, SAT, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College. Board.   For these reasons, the AP teacher plays a significant role in a student's academic journey.   It has been several years since the College Board developed a new Teacher's Guide for AP U.S. History, and..Tobacco is used to send a message to ask for the help of the people in your community.It is also used in Mi’kmaw burial ceremonies.By giving a tobacco offering to the spirits, it helps the deceased to get to the spirit world.Tobacco is commonly used in Pipe ceremonies.

When rocks are used in a Sweat Lodge ceremony, it is believed that the rock is being asked to give up its life.

The Mi’kmaq believe that everything is living, in one form or another.It is thought that a rock will ‘speak’ to you if you earn that right, and when asking a rock to give up its life, it cannot be for selfish reasons.Smudging Smudging is similar to blessing oneself with Holy Water in the Catholic faith.The smoke from burning sweet grass, cedar, or sage, is brushed toward one’s body to cleanse the spirit.The smudging is usually done before a person involves himself in a traditional ceremony.

Sweat Lodge Ceremony A Sweat Lodge is constructed out of willow or alder bushes because of the flexibility of these woods.When constructing a Sweat Lodge, the entrance must always face east.A Sweat Lodge can accommodate four to twelve people, seated in a circle.In the centre of the Lodge is a dugout where hot rocks are positioned.People go for several ’rounds’, which means that they exit and enter the Sweat Lodge several times throughout the ceremony.

The ceremony itself is for spiritual cleansing and healing.Everyone who goes through a ‘sweat’ will have a different personal experience – or even no experience at all.Four Directions When praying toward the four directions, the Mi’kmaq give thanks to the elements that each of the directions represent: # the North represents the cool and refreshing northerly breeze.It also represents the white race, the doers, the active, and the builders # when praying to the South, thanks is given for the warmth and the rain it has to offer.It also represents the black race, the trend setters, innovators, and artists # the east represents light, energy, and the sunrise.

It also represents the red race, the spirit seekers, and the visionaries # the West represents the rise and chatter of the thunder.It also stands for the yellow race, peace, serenity, patience, and wisdom.It is vitally important for the Mi’kmaq to live the four seasons to the fullest.There is no special day to hold a traditional ceremony.

The Mi’kmaq feel spring is the most important season of all.It represents a new beginning for all of earth’s creations.The Four Directions and the Eagle There is an eagle which represents each of the four directions.Sack mentioned only three – the spotted eagle, the marsh eagle, and the fish or bald eagle.

The spotted and marsh eagles stay within the directional boundaries each represents, but the bald eagle has no boundaries.It represents the Mi’kmaw tribe of the east.The eagle feather is significant to all First Nations tribes across Canada.The eagle feather is a way of delivering a message to the Creator.It is an honour to receive an eagle feather in recognition of helping one’s people.

This interview was part of research material collected and compiled by Leslie Googoo and Darin J.Paul This oral history was researched and prepared by Violet Paul in the early 1990’s while she was in a student employment program.Violet chose to write the history of her grandfather, William G.

Paul, to show that Mi’kmaw elders have a history that is evocative and alive.William Paul passed away in 1993, but we remember him in his stories.Paul – Indian Brook First Nation, Nova Scotia I was born August 4, 1896, at Sheet Harbour, Nova Scotia.My father was John Edward Paul and my mother was Rhonda Hubley.

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I was born on my parents’ farm, not on the Indian squatting grounds.At that time my parents did not live on Indian land.I had four brothers and one sister – Leta, who passed away in the summer of 1990 6 Oct 2011 - Master's Thesis. 3. DATES COVERED (From - To). AUG 2010 – JUN 2011. 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE. What Were the Causes of the Delay of the 79th   14. ABSTRACT. On the opening day of the Meuse-Argonne Offensive of World War I, the newly-created United States. 79th Division was templated to  .I had four brothers and one sister – Leta, who passed away in the summer of 1990.

She was ninety-five years old and lived in Boston, Massachusetts.My father was Micmac Indian, and he was born on Joe Paul’s grant in Sheet Harbour.

Joe Paul’s grant belonged to my grandfather, Joe Paul.The land was later taken by the government.My mother was Dutch, and she was born and raised in Mushaboom jreference.com/thesis/buy-an-world-war-i-thesis-british-81-pages-22275-words-double-spaced.My mother was Dutch, and she was born and raised in Mushaboom.I remember that we lived in a house made of rough lumber.

A lot of people in those days lived in birch bark wigwams.

I remember my father killing a moose one hundred feet away from our house.I think that the animals moved deeper into the woods because they will not stay if there are a lot of people.I remember, too, that the Indians all lived near the water.

They lived on the fish they caught, for if they had not, they would have starved.They also lived on lands that were known as squatting grounds.They lived near Sober Island, Mushaboom, and all down the eastern shores of Nova Scotia.I used to help my father plant potatoes in the spring.We did not have any tools to make our work easier.We planted potatoes and different vegetables.In those days people worked together, and we received a lot of help.Once we were finished planting, then we helped other people.I remember the bread the people made in my childhood.

First they would build a fire and then heat up the sand on the ground.Once the sand was hot enough, the lady would make the bread.She would then dig a hole in the sand and place the dough in the hole.She then covered the dough with the remaining hot sand and let it sit for about an hour and a half.When the bread was done, it would be as white as snow.

It was the best tasting bread that I have ever eaten.It scared me because it had no horses attached to it.I was used to seeing a wagon with horses.I ran a mile through the woods to tell my grandfather about what I had seen.

I could not figure out what the thing was, because I did not know about cars.I remember when my grandfather went off to the Boer War; I was just a little boy.He was wearing a pair of blue pants with yellow stripes down the side.I never went to war, but my brother Roop was in the American navy.

The Halifax Explosion I remember the Halifax Explosion.I was working in a big glass building, about one hundred feet long.Potatoes and vegetables were planted and grown in this building.The only way that I can describe the noise that I heard that day was that it was as if a bomb went off, it was so loud.

Some people had sticks through their faces.The only thing that saved me was that I jumped under a table when I saw all the glass come shattering down where I was.There was a Newfoundlander standing in the doorway before the explosion, and I never saw him again.

There was a girl lying outside of a hotel.I ran into the hotel and grabbed a quilt and wrapped her in it.Every man was for himself in those days, and God was for us all.

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I remember that later that night about twenty-four inches of snow fell.There is a place in Dartmouth where the anchor and gun from that ship are located.

The anchor and gun flew about three miles back into the woods History of antisemitism in the United States Wikipedia.The anchor and gun flew about three miles back into the woods.

I used to cut wood for her mother so that I could get on her good side.Sarah and I were married in a Catholic church in Truro, Nova Scotia.

He prepared all kinds of homemade beer for the reception.The gentleman who married us drove us around after the ceremony and never charged us one cent.Traditional Indian Medicines I remember once when my mother’s wife had a cold.

She had a cold for about a year, but I cured it for her.I made medicine with balsam, cherry, and alder barks.I mixed everything together, then boiled it for a couple of hours.She drank the brew and it took care of her cold.

Most of the remedies I had were passed on to other members of the community.If someone had a bad headache, I would go and get some alder bark.I scraped it up fine; then I would mix it with a little vinegar.I wrapped the cloth around the person’s head.The person was never troubled by those headaches again.I would like to make more medicine, but I need someone to go into the woods for me.I need the different bark from the trees, and they are all marked.I think the Indian people would be better off today if they kept the Indian medicine from the woods, instead of going to doctors all the time and getting pills.

Flag and blood root grew around the old farms along the rivers.When the roots were squeezed, it looked as if blood was coming out.That must be where the name ‘blood root’ came from.

Back in those days we never knew what someone died from.Work I can’t say that I had any jobs that were special.I took jobs and worked any place because I needed money to live.I once worked at a place where we attended to shipments of supplies that came off the warships.I also worked on water mills, driving the logs to where they were supposed to go.You could never work seven hours and expect to feed your family.

At the age of fourteen, my daily pay was four dollars.Nobody could go shopping like they do today.The Depression The Depression days were hard days for everybody, but I can’t say that they affected my family more than anyone else.We had fourteen children, and I had to work hard to feed them.I had a steady job all the time, but during those days I also worked for myself.During the evenings and weekends, I made furniture.

I made chairs, and one time I sold two hundred chairs in one day! A lady who owned a hotel bought them from me.

I also made canvas canoes – never birch bark canoes.You could never stand up and go sword fishing in the canoes they make today.The old Indians made really good canoes.

I remember once when my mother was sick.I cooked for her and a nurse would come in once a day and clean her up.When my parents died, they had beautiful coffins.They were not like the ones you see today.The coffins in those days were made of birch bark.

About fifty years ago a man was lost in the woods for about seven days.

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I found him, after coming close to shooting him, mistaking him for a deer.The only thing that saved this man was that he was wearing a heavy jacket.I asked him what he was doing out in the woods 1 Jan 2012 - make their best efforts to learn how to see the American literary canon from Native eyes if they   In order to achieve this, for each passage presented in the thesis I begin with a formal explication that will, at best, evince a multicultural appreciation of the   the 'size' and 'virility' of American literature studies..I asked him what he was doing out in the woods.

His reply was that he was waiting for the gates of heaven to open.

I gave him tea, but was afraid to give him anything else, for it might have killed him.Some Reflections on Life I only had three sweethearts in my life, and the one that was the most special, I married 3 days ago - trench warfare ww1 essay hook reflective essay on career development health insurance research papers buy a college essay yesterday nebular   Teaching philosophy essay papers on compare australia as a multicultural society essay paper literature based dissertation proposal mother gothel costume  .Some Reflections on Life I only had three sweethearts in my life, and the one that was the most special, I married.Sarah and I celebrated our sixtieth anniversary before she passed away.I have sons who are in politics or something like that homework.I have sons who are in politics or something like that.I tell them the things I believe in – to treat each person kindly and work hard.When the white men came to our country, we treated them like brothers and we gave them a hand.I believe that if you live a good life and help those in need, then there is nothing to be afraid of when you die.Schooling I never had a chance to go to school.There were no schools within ten miles of where I lived.

Once I moved to Sheet Harbour, I had to work.People are always telling me how smart I am for not having gone to school a day in my life.The Curse of the Halifax Bridge I remember that the first bridge between Halifax and Dartmouth was made of wood.

I can’t say that I recall anyone putting a curse on the bridge.I hear that an Indian put a curse on the bridge.Thoughts on Government Assistance The government started giving handouts to the Indians about twenty years ago.At that time it wasn’t even money, just a piece of paper.

The government used to give barrels of flour to the reserves, so the Indian people could make their own bread.It’s hard to say how the Indians would be today, if the white man had not come.

I know Indians fished and hunted for their food.They did not have many of the modern things, but they did not have diseases.The Indians helped the white man by curing many of their diseases.I think the government should be good to the Indian people for if it were not for the Indians, the white man would not be here.

Oral History Three with Cecile Marr This oral history is based on an interview with Cecile Marr, an elder of Indian Brook, Nova Scotia.Originally part of an assignment completed by Leslie Googoo for the Transitional Year Program at Dalhousie University, the interview was conducted in December, 1988.

Cecile Marr was born March 11, 1916, and died February 19, 1992.

Cecile Marr, Indian Brook First Nation, Nova Scotia Cecile Marr was born in 1916 into a family of twenty-two children, in the province of Quebec.She met her husband, John Marr, from Wellington, Nova Scotia, in Quebec.She would move to Indian Brook in 1933, and marry John Marr on November 20, 1935.(An older sister married John’s brother.) John Marr was born in 1914, and eventually died from diabetes in 1977, at the age of sixty- three.

Roland was born December 25, 1937 and died July 15, 1991.Their son Francis had already passed away at the time of the interview (1988), and the dates of his birth and death are unknown.Cecile told the interviewer that she was “going to outlive them all!”, and she did.Cecile said that her parents had died close together in time.

Her husband John’s father, Isaac Marr, died of old age, and John’s mother, Alice Marr, died of diabetes related illness.Early Days in Indian Brook When Cecile first arrived in Indian Brook, there was only one path which lead out of the community.There was no name for Indian Brook at the time, and the community itself consisted of only three houses.When people walked from Indian Road into town on a rainy day, they were forced to walk in mud up to their ankles.

All of the houses looked like barns, and had no foundations.The outhouses had only side walls, a flat roof, no front or back walls, and two ‘seats’.When Cecile came to Nova Scotia, she noticed the differences between English and French.

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No one spoke English on the Indian Road (Indian Brook) reserve; there were more full-blooded Mi’kmaq living there in the early days, and everyone spoke the Mi’kmaw language.When she arrived in the community, she only knew how to speak and write in French, though, happily, she eventually became fluent in both the Mi’kmaq language and English, which are spoken today on the reserve.

There was no medical care available in Indian Brook when Cecile first went to live there Buy an wwi thesis proposal cheap Academic double spaced Premium British.There was no medical care available in Indian Brook when Cecile first went to live there.

Both of her children were born at home, and babies in the community were commonly born in a house or barn.If someone was sick or hurt, they had to attend to their own ailments.When people wanted food they had to walk five or six miles into town Our experiences in indigenous communities led us to question assumptions that are routinely endorsed and promoted in suicide prevention programs and interventions.   44(p14) In short, the fact that health services are culturally constituted—both in identifying needs and in choosing how they are addressed—is regularly  .When people wanted food they had to walk five or six miles into town.It cost five dollars for groceries, which would last John and Cecile for two weeks.

They carried their groceries home in a burlap potato bag.Cecile made her own bread called “luski” from a Mi’kmaq recipe.Her cooking was done on a wood stove made from cast iron, and it also provided the house with heat.A kerosene lamp was their source of light.Earning A Livelihood Cecile and John derived their only income from basket making.

They made both baskets and basket cradles, which sold for fifty dollars.They obtained their wood for basket making from Nine Mile River and Renew (Grand Lake).They commonly used ash for their baskets, and for implements such as axe, pick, hammer, and hoe handles.To do this, they used a tool called a draw knife.It had two handles at each end of a straight blade.

A saw horse was used to hold the wood in place for carving.There was a large marketplace located in Halifax where produce and meats were sold, generally displayed on tables.It was only open on Fridays and Saturdays from eight in the morning until twelve noon.Cecile also made and sold Christmas wreaths.Along with John and a friend, they also cut pulpwood which they sold by the cord.

A white man would come to purchase the pulpwood from them.Graveyard There was a small graveyard in Indian Brook when Cecile first arrived though no one realized what it was until a headstone was accidently discovered.The graveyard itself was located near a little church, and is still being used by the Indian Brook community in the 1990’s.

Transportation The road to Halifax was very narrow, and therefore most people travelling to Halifax had to go by train.This was how she and her husband travelled to Halifax to sell their baskets.There weren’t many cars around in those days, though Cecile’s husband owned an old car which Cecile referred to as a “tin can”.It only cost one dollar and fifty cents for gas to go from Indian Brook to Halifax.

The Marr Family Cecile had only two sons, but she also had sixteen grandchildren and thirteen great-grandchildren at the time of the interview, though her family has increased in size since then.

John Marr was chief of Indian Brook back in 1942.There was a federal law banning alcohol in Mi’kmaw communities, however, and John was deposed from office by the Council on June 13, 1944.He had been caught in possession of alcohol.Cecile Marr was four feet three inches tall and had blue eyes.Though a non-native, she resided in Indian Brook until the end of her life, and was also buried there in 1992.

At the time of the interview two of her grandchildren were living with her.Cecile would become happy when anyone took the time to speak with her about the old days, and was always very pleasant and full of good humour.Oral history collected by Leslie Googoo and Darin J.Googoo, from an interview conducted by Leslie Googoo, 1988.

Early Days One day we were over there, the next day we were here Eskasoni .My father was chief in the 1930s but not at the same time as Centralization.When he was the chief, he fixed the roads.A lot of things happened that year – 1939.

New school in the mid 30s and then the war started and the same time was the end of the Kojuwa.We used to have Kojuwa – dancing around the stove.

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We’d take the stove pipe off, some cases, and in some cases they didn’t.A fiddler just sat in the middle of the floor and we danced around him.Joined the army, and whoever didn’t, went to work UCLA Electronic Theses and Dissertations eScholarship.Joined the army, and whoever didn’t, went to work.

Changes of Scene I left home when I was fifteen.I went to work for Duncan-ji’j from Membertou .I went to work for Duncan-ji’j from Membertou.As soon as I got my registration card I went back home.

I was only getting paid 50 cents an hour and I had to pay a dollar a day for board jreference.com/homework/ethics.php.I was only getting paid 50 cents an hour and I had to pay a dollar a day for board.By the end of the week I had nothing, hardly ethics.By the end of the week I had nothing, hardly.When I got to age of sixteen, I could get my registration card and could apply for a job.I stayed in Halifax off and on until 1945.

Year after that, this bald headed fellow came, and Mac Kinnon, he looked over the place.Of course, then we didn’t have any livestock but before we did.We had horses, cows, geese, chickens – our own produce in Chapel Island.When they came, so my mother tells the story, the hay was up to their bellies.They were selling it because they had no livestock.

They admired the place so they coaxed us to come to Eskasoni.They did their dealings with my parents so they came another time.I guess it was the fall season because there was a ball tournament going on.

They coaxed us to come to Eskasoni, but they didn’t seem to coax anybody else.Simon Cremo was here before anybody, and Ekkian Utjum, Grand Chief, Jitjij, Johnnikie, Duma Blonsoom – his son drown here.I think they stayed in that little dairy out there, but not much left to it.I stayed with my sister, John Denny, Qamsipuk.I’m still visiting – that’s how I feel like, anyway.

I’d go back any day, but Betsy wouldn’t go – neither the kids.Centralization How was it when I came down here? So exactly like what that fellow said to John Simon from Whycocomagh.He said to John Simon, “‘You stay put, John.

'” He said,”‘I’m going to tell you right now, there will be a boom there for ten years, and then it will flop.You’ll be walking around there without a job.What can you call it when a person goes from one reserve to another? Just like putting a war from this side to another.

They promised…I guess they promised a lot.According to my parents, they said that you would have as much and better.We had acres of land that was cleared by hand.My father ploughed the land, bought the place fifteen years ago.

Then he ploughed year after year, clearing it.We had potatoes, turnips, carrots, beets, and lima beans, and so did Betsy and them.If anyone had any flock at all, they planted.But there were some poor people in Barrahead, I tell you.

Can you really blame anybody? Anyway, we came in 1946 for a while.

My father didn’t get much job opportunities.He’d be fifty-three, and you don’t hire a fifty- three year old if you want work done.

So he made baskets here – Indian’s way, anyway.I did some work in the woods, logging, painting, digging, whatever, and the whole thing flopped! We had a mill here across the bridge, where the bridge is now on the side.Then it got moved and got a bigger mill here over where the rink is towards the brook.They couldn’t sell the lumber because it didn’t pass the grade.

They had sawers putting lumber every which way.

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If they had a proper saw, they probably could have sold it.The buyers weren’t going to look at that stuff.They would have to dress it up themselves and then cut half of it 3 days ago - shade documentary review essays; nativism against immigration essays nyu college essay in marathi language americanism essay winner 2008   to write a letter essay mystery stories 500 words essay, human health issues research paper vacation in usa essay, jfk conspiracy persuasive essay hsc essay..

They would have to dress it up themselves and then cut half of it.

They had implements here, all kinds of fine implements here.Some of them from Truro got them for little to nothing Write better essay in 20 minutes a day Daniela Languages.Some of them from Truro got them for little to nothing.There were big trucks loading and everything Write better essay in 20 minutes a day Daniela Languages.

There were big trucks loading and everything.

God knows what big barns – there was a big barn here, making a farm out of this.I don’t know why the hell they wanted the stallion here unless they were going to raise horses.They had goats, chickens – none of these things worked.I worked for a while, but they still lost money.Well, I can tell you, when we first came here, everybody worked.Indian people had a little bit of pride.They had to go for a work order, they’d hide.A work order had a kind of a stigma attached to it – a little bit of shame to be seen with a work order.This destructive nature, within 2-3 years, they hold up their welfare cheques.

Theeere wwwas an old lady in Chapel Island who was getting four dollars a month.The sick people with TB and all that, those who couldn’t work – my father used to supply them with milk.He used to fill out these statements and send them to Ottawa.He’d get his cheque, but it wasn’t very much.I don’t know what budget they were talking about.

When they moved here, it was doubled because they had to build houses, put up a mill.When we came here, they came with a bulldozer.In Chapel Island, we cleared the land all by hand.We’d pull the stumps by hand, alder bushes.

Well, not exactly by hand – we had a horse.We had our classes, too, even though we were all Indians.There was middle class, enough to eat, and then there was the poor.

There were three classes and then there were drinkers.They’d stay for months, and off they go again.Everyone, most of them, lived in Qamsipuk.

Sylliboy Denny, I guess his father lived where he lives now.Joe Googoo lived where Casey is, with a white woman.Around centralization time, there was a white settlement in Castle Bay.

Oral history collected and compiled by Florence Dennis.Early Family Life My name is Daniel Stevens.I was born in 1930 in North Sydney Nova Scotia .

We moved here Eskasoni when I was twelve years old, 1942.Our house was only a shell – no furnace.All we got was a little paper – a food order.We once had a little pig that we didn’t let grow up – were too hungry.There was no electricity, power, no radio.

I remember when I was twelve, we had good times and bad, only good fun.Children were taught to respect their elders.My mother would make stuffing for the fish – that was a great meal.If anyone caught any meat, like deer, it was shared with everyone.

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Thoughts on Centralization and Indian Agents I remember when we moved here, people came from Whycocomagh, many families.

Indian agents destroyed their homes so they could not get back.We were treated the same as the Japanese Oral Histories Cape Breton University.We were treated the same as the Japanese.

They were gathered to one spot, but when the war was over, they got their stuff back.We were treated worse, because Indians didn’t get anything back.The Indian people got potatoes … but the potatoes disappeared overnight.Indian agents sold them, and it was a good supply how to write an philosophy dissertation 9 days Premium single spaced.Indian agents sold them, and it was a good supply.Also, if we needed seed potatoes, you had to buy them.When we found out, the Indian agents already spent what was due to us.We had a big home, a tar paper house, but it was warm.When she got there, our home wasn’t there.A white woman, our neighbour, told her the Indian agents burned our home as soon as we left.I remember her crying when she told us our home was burned down.Oral history collected and compiled by Florence Dennis.Early Days in Eskasoni After Centralization Me and husband first lived in States.It was in 1942 when we came back from Portland.When we came back, nobody was in Whycocomagh, only one family.A teacher named Alex Mac Donald called John and told him he would get a job as a truck driver.My in-laws wanted to move to Eskasoni, so we followed them.

We were told we would get new houses, but the houses were only tar paper shacks.My husband drove people here to Eskasoni.We would get a food order, called one or two rations.One ration was eight dollars, and two was twelve dollars.

Then we would take it to the community store, the old band office.

We got our stuff at the community store.The agent got a lot of money that we were supposed to get.They could have helped our people but they didn’t.The agents got cows that were supposed to have been for our people.But they didn’t get the cows , they kept them.If you got water for your house, you had to pay yourself.

I went to ask for help, but this woman told me, ‘I heard that story before’, so she didn’t help me.Even the doctor was mean, and would throw people out.The older people could not communicate because they didn’t understand any English.Older people were really poor, because they could not ask for help.The houses were only shells with a wood burning stove.

The people that first came in Castle Bay lived in tents until they got a tar paper shack.It is hard to believe we lived in those conditions.Oral history collected and compiled by Florence Dennis.