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Canopic vase or jar - A container or small jar used in ancient Egypt to hold the internal organs of a person who had been mummified.The lids were usually modeled to represent animal-headed gods or the heads of important people.

Chert - A fine-grained sedimentary rock, similar to flint, that is white, pinkish, brown, gray, or blue-gray in color How Much Does Proofreading Cost Scribendi.Chert - A fine-grained sedimentary rock, similar to flint, that is white, pinkish, brown, gray, or blue-gray in color.

In antiquity, chert was one of the universally preferred materials for making stone tools (obsidian was another).Chipped stone tool - Stone tool made by striking a stone (core or preform) with another stone (hammerstone) or other hard material (such as antler).Small pieces of stone (flakes) were struck off the core in a controlled and precise manner to create a usable shape (arrow heads, spear points, knives, etc 12 Oct 2017 - In order papers writing service in san francisco chequerscontracts nbsp; Should i buy an laboratory report astronomy double spaced us letter size freshman rewriting; Institute for astronomy special events; Where to get a astronomy laboratory report high quality platinum ama a4 (british/european) business  .Small pieces of stone (flakes) were struck off the core in a controlled and precise manner to create a usable shape (arrow heads, spear points, knives, etc.The two main techniques of creating chipped tools were direct percussion (the core is struck directly with a hammerstone) and indirect percussion (another object is placed between the core and the hammerstone).Citadel - A fortress, or stronghold, in or near a fortified city.The citadel was intended to command the city and its fortifications, but could also be used as a final point of defense into which people could retreat for shelter during battle.City-state - An independent, self-governing city that incorporated its surrounding territory, including smaller towns and villages.

Equivalent to a polis in ancient Greece.

Clan - A group of people from many lineages who live in one place and have a common line of descent, usually under one chieftain.Classic Period - New World chronological period, traditionally thought to mark the initial appearance of urban states in Mesoamerica and the Andean region.Classical Period - Period in ancient Greece encompassing the 5th century B., characterized by distinctive art and architecture.Collectors - Individuals who acquire archaeological artifacts for private collections.

While some objects are legally obtained, many are purchased from looters who destroy archaeological sites in their attempts to find artifacts.This destructive, unscientific approach strips an artifact of its context.The looted artifacts are often sold on the black market.Demand for privately-owned art and artifacts fuels further looting.Colonial Archaeology - In North America, defined as a division of Historical Archaeology concerned with European colonization of the New World and with interactions between native inhabitants, Europeans and Africans from about A.

Column - In architecture, a supporting pillar usually composed of a base, shaft, and surmounting capital.Often used for decorative as well as functional purposes.Conchoidal - Relating to stone tools, the term conchoidal describes a specific type of fracture created when obsidian, chert, or glass-like substances are struck with a hard instrument and a flake is removed.The fracture pattern produces a flake that appears bent.Conservation - A branch of archaeology that deals with the stabilization, preservation, repair, reconstruction, and general management of material culture and natural resources.Context - The position and associations of an artifact, feature, or archaeological find in space and time.Loss of context strips an artifact of meaning and makes it more difficult (sometimes, impossible) to determine function.Contract Archaeology - Archaeological research and excavation undertaken under contracts with the government or private organizations, designed to protect cultural resources in danger of destruction due to development.Contract archaeologists are often hired by construction companies to do salvage archaeology.Core - A chunk of stone from which flakes are removed.

The core itself can be shaped into a tool or used as a source of flakes to be formed into tools.Corinthian column - The most ornate of the three column styles (Doric, Ionic and Corinthian), Corinthian columns are essentially more elaborate Ionic columns.Cortex - The rough outer surface of a stone, usually removed to reveal the smooth interior during flint knapping (the making of stone tools).Cultural Resource Management (CRM) - Profession that focuses on the management and preservation of cultural resources, such as archaeological sites or artifacts, protecting them for future generations.

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Culture - A network of socially transmitted behaviors, beliefs, and ideas that separate humans into distinct groups.Culture directly affects the production of the material objects found at archaeological sites.Cuneiform - The first system of writing in human history, developed in ancient Mesopotamia, which used a reed to impress wedge-shaped marks onto the surface of clay tablets Who can help me write a archeology research paper one hour Business A4 (British/European). | 12.12.2017| 170| 157   Get a college archeology research paper ASA 24 hours US Letter Size plagiarism-free. | 05.12.2017| 95| 369. Help me do a archeology research paper Standard double spaced American plagiarism-free..Cuneiform - The first system of writing in human history, developed in ancient Mesopotamia, which used a reed to impress wedge-shaped marks onto the surface of clay tablets.

Datum point - A specific, fixed location from which all measurements on a site are made or to which they are calibrated.Debitage - Small pieces of stone debris that break off during the manufacturing of stone tools.These are usually considered waste and are a by-product of production How to write an archeology term paper quality single spaced 122 pages / 33550 words Premium 48 hours.These are usually considered waste and are a by-product of production.Dendrochronology - A type of absolute dating.The technique is based on the fact that trees add a ring of growth annually, and counting the rings gives the age of the tree jreference.com/coursework/ethnicity.php.The technique is based on the fact that trees add a ring of growth annually, and counting the rings gives the age of the tree.The rings vary in size depending on the conditions affecting trees in an area, so trees from the same region will have similar patterns of growth and can be matched with one other.

When a tree ring pattern is recognized in timber, the age of that timber can be calculated and thus the approximate age of the feature or structure to which it belongs can be determined.This method was first widely used in the American Southwest.Diffusion - The transmission of ideas or materials from culture to culture, or from one area to another.Ecofacts - Archaeological finds that are of cultural significance, but were not manufactured by humans.

These include bones and vegetal remains that can tell us about past diet or environments.

Ethnography - A branch of anthropology that studies and describes modern human cultures (rather than human behavior or physical attributes).Archaeologists sometimes work with ethnographers in an effort to correlate behavior with material remains.Excavation - The digging up and recording of archaeological sites, including uncovering and recording the provenience, context, and three-dimensional location of archaeological finds.Experimental archaeology - A branch of archaeology that studies ancient technology by reproducing it or by recreating a type of site to study the processes of site formation.Fabric - Term used to describe the composition of the clay used in the manufacture of a ceramic pot or artifact; it includes temper, texture, hardness, and other characteristics.

Feature - Any physical structure or element, such as a wall, post hole, pit, or floor, that is made or altered by humans but (unlike an artifact) is not portable and cannot be removed from a site.Feminist archaeology - A branch of archaeology that focuses on collecting evidence of female social roles in past cultures and of women's influence in shaping societies.Field notes - Detailed, written accounts of archaeological research, excavation, and interpretation made while in the field at an ongoing project.Flake - A piece of stone removed from a core for use as a tool or as debitage.Flint - Hard, fine-grained sedimentary rock used by early humans to manufacture stone tools, such as spear and dart points, knives, and other utilitarian tools.

Late stone-age people also struck flint to make sparks to produce fire.Flotation - The soaking of an excavated matrix (usually dirt) in water to separate and recover small ecofacts and artifacts, such as pollen samples, that cannot be recovered through traditional sieving.Formation processes - Human-caused or natural processes by which an archaeological site is modified during or after occupation and abandonment.These processes have a large effect on the provenience of artifacts or features found by archaeologists.Geological processes, disturbances by animals, plant growth, and human activities all contribute to site formation.

Geoarchaeology - Archaeological research using the methods and concepts of the earth sciences.Geoarchaeologists often study soil and sediment patterns and processes of earth formation observed at archaeological sites.This form of research provides a wealth of information about context and human activity.Global Positioning System (GPS) - An instrument that determines (by triangulation) the location of features, using data from orbiting satellites.Grave goods - Objects placed within human burials to equip a person for the afterlife or to identify the deceased.

A site or large area of excavation is generally marked off into square units before digging begins.

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Ground Reconnaissance - The search for sites by visual inspection of the surface while on the ground (as opposed to in the air).Ground-penetrating radar - An instrument used to find sub-surface anomalies (features) by recording differential reflection of radar pulses.

Half-life - The time needed for half of a radioactive isotope to decay and form a stable element SHA Style Guide, December 2011 http://www.sha.org/publications/style_guide.htm. 1. The Society for Historical Archaeology. Publications Style Guide revised December   Revised standards and procedures for figures.   1996 A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 6th rev. edition. University of  .Half-life - The time needed for half of a radioactive isotope to decay and form a stable element.

This known rate of decay is used in radiometric dating, such as radiocarbon dating, to determine the age of objects.Harris Matrix - Invented in 1973 by Dr.Harris as a way to simplify the representation of the stratigraphy at an archaeological site Absolute Dating - Collective term for techniques that assign specific dates or date ranges, in calendar years, to artifacts and other archaeological finds.   vary in size depending on the conditions affecting trees in an area, so trees from the same region will have similar patterns of growth and can be matched with one other..

Harris as a way to simplify the representation of the stratigraphy at an archaeological site.

In addition to traditional cross section drawings, Harris proposed that archaeologists create a flow chart (Harris Matrix) of a site to record the order in which layers and features occurred.Hellenistic period - The era between the death of Alexander the Great (323 B.) and the rise of the Roman Empire (27 B.

), when a fairly uniform civilization, based on Greek traditions, prevailed over most of the ancient world, from India in the east to Spain in the west.Historical Archaeology - A discipline within archaeology concerned with supplementing written history with archaeological research to create a more complete account of the past.The term applies only to the study of societies with written records.

Hominid - This term was used in the past to describe the early humans called Hominins today.When the classification system changed to include apes in the human lineage (Hominidae), the term Hominid came to include apes and humans.Today, when talking about the human lineage and its ancestors, we use the term Hominin.Older publications that use the term Hominid are usually refering to the human lineage only.Hominin - "Early human or pre-human beings: a member of the sub-family Homininae usually identified by bipedal adaptations.

They are represented today by one species, Homo sapien sapiens.Past Hominins include Australopithecines, Homo habilis and Homo erectus."Household Archaeology - A branch of archaeology concerned with the study of the material culture and activities associated with ancient households.

Hunter-gatherers - A community or group that subsists primarily by hunting wild game and gathering wild plant resources.

Hunter-gatherers usually live in small groups of less the 150 individuals.Inorganic - Composed of matter other than animal or plant, or not derived from living or once-living organisms.Ionic column - Column surmounted by a capital with spiral coils on each side; the column shaft usually has more flutes and is more slender than the Doric column, and it has a decorative base.Iron Age - The prehistoric period in the Old World that followed the Bronze Age, characterized by the use of iron implements in place of bronze tools.

Knapping - A technique for making stone tools and weapons by striking flakes from a core with a hard (stone) or soft (antler) percussion instrument.Individual flakes or cores can be further modified to create tools.Levallois technique - A tool-making technique that originated 200,000 years ago in which a prepared core was used to manufacture flakes of predetermined size and shape.Characteristic of Middle Paleolithic and Mousterian technologies.

Law of Superposition - A physical "law" asserting that deeper layers of sediment or archaeological strata will naturally be older than the layers above them (in the absence of unusual, disruptive, activity, such as earthquakes).Linear A - An undeciphered writing system used in Minoan Crete from the 18th to the 15th century B.Linear B - A syllabic script used in Mycenaean Greek documents, chiefly from Crete and Pylos, around the 13th century B.

Lintel - A horizontal block or beam spanning the top of a doorway or other opening.Looter - An individual who plunders archaeological sites to find artifacts of commercial value, thereby destroying the area of the site the objects came from and their archaeological context.

Medieval Archaeology - In Europe, a field of Historical Archaeology concerned with the era between the Dark Ages and the Renaissance (11th - 14th centuries C.

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Midden - A deposit of occupation debris, rubbish, or other by-products of human activity, such as shell, bone, or debitage, found close to a living area; a trash heap or pit.Mousterian - The name given to a European stone-tool industry characterized by flakes struck from prepared cores, dating from about 150,000 until 35,000 years ago.

Neolithic - The latter portion of the Stone Age, a time period beginning around 10,000 B .Neolithic - The latter portion of the Stone Age, a time period beginning around 10,000 B.

, when many areas were developing agriculture, especially the Middle East.New World - Term used for the Americas (North, Central, South, and the neighboring islands) by Europeans in the 16th century who were discovering the region for the first time.

Nomads - Pastoralists; groups that move across a territory seasonally in search of food, water, and grazing grounds for livestock SHA Publications Style Guide Society for Historical Archaeology.Nomads - Pastoralists; groups that move across a territory seasonally in search of food, water, and grazing grounds for livestock.Obsidian - A glassy, volcanic rock, often black in color, was used in ancient times to produce extremely sharp blades.Obsidian blades can have an edge so sharp that they have been successfully used as scalpels in heart and eye surgery nuclear security.Obsidian blades can have an edge so sharp that they have been successfully used as scalpels in heart and eye surgery.Old World - Regions of the world (Europe, Asia, Africa) known to Europeans before the discovery of the New World (Americas) by Christopher Columbus.Oldowan - Name for the earliest stone tool industry, dating from about 2.

Characterized by large tools with a sharp edge created by the removal, through direct percussion, of a few flakes (sometimes as few as 3) without much preconceived planning.Organic - Material derived from or relating to living organisms.Organic remains decay and are not preserved as well as inorganic remains in the archaeological record.

Paleolithic - The early stage of the Stone Age, beginning about 750,000 years ago.During this time humans relied on stone technology to sustain their scavenging, hunting and gathering lifestyle.Paleontology - The study of the forms of pre-existing life as represented by the fossils of plants, animals, and other organisms.Palynology - The recovery and study of ancient pollen grains for the purposes of analyzing ancient climate, vegetation, and diet.Papyrus - A reed found in the Mediterranean region, and northern Africa, especially Egypt, used to make a type of paper.

Plane table - A horizontal board mounted parallel to the ground on a tripod, that allows a map or plan to be attached and measurements (taken with an alidade) to be directly plotted in the field.Pressure flaking - Technique of removing flakes from a core by applying pressure steadily until the flake breaks off, in contrast to percussion flaking, in which the flake is struck off.Primary Context - The context of an artifact, feature, or site that has not been disturbed since its original deposition.Profile drawing - Profile drawings or cross section drawings are drawn representations of the walls of an excavation unit or of a balk made as if one were standing directly in front of them.

Each view may have a different profile or they may all look the same.

Radiocarbon dating - An absolute dating technique used to determine the age of organic materials less than 50,000 years old.Age is determined by examining the loss of the unstable carbon-14 isotope, which is absorbed by all living organisms during their lifespan.The rate of decay of this unstable isotope after the organism has died is assumed to be constant, and is measured in half-lives of 5730 + 40 years, meaning that the amount of carbon-14 is reduced to half the amount after about 5730 years.Dates generated by radiocarbon dating have to be calibrated using dates derived from other absolute dating methods, such as dendrochronology and ice cores.

Radiometric dating - A variety of absolute dating methods based on the rates of the transformation of an unstable radioactive isotope into a stable element.Reconnaissance - A method of gathering data, often associated with surface surveys, in which archaeological remains are systematically identified and plotted on a map.Relative dating - A system of dating archaeological remains and strata in relation to each other.By using methods of typing or by assigning a sequence based on the Law of Superposition, archaeologists organize layers or objects in order from "oldest" to "most recent." Relative dating methods help archaeologists establish chronologies of finds and types.

Remote sensing - Non-intrusive survey methods used to find archaeological sites; these may include aerial reconnaissance and geophysical techniques such as magnetometry, radar, resistivity, and conductivity.Rescue Archaeology - The swift excavation and collection of artifacts at sites in immediate danger of destruction, usually by major land modification or construction projects (as in construction of a road or dam).Archaeologists record and recover as much of the site as they can in the brief period before it is destroyed.

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Secondary Context - Context of an artifact that has been wholly or partially altered by transformation/site formation processes after its original deposit, as in disturbance by human activity after the artifacts' original deposition.

Seriation - The organization of artifacts, monuments, types, and styles into groups assumed to be distinct and representative of chronological change.Shaman - A specialist in certain societies who acts as a medium between the visible world and the spirit world, practicing magic or sorcery for purposes of healing, divination, and control over natural events Should i order a college term paper archeology Platinum 117 pages / 32175 words US Letter Size Graduate.Shaman - A specialist in certain societies who acts as a medium between the visible world and the spirit world, practicing magic or sorcery for purposes of healing, divination, and control over natural events.

Sherd - The term used for a piece of broken pottery from an archaeological context.Site - Any place where human material remains are found; an area of human activity represented by material culture Requirements this course satisfies: Satisfies the American Cultures requirement. Hours & Format. Fall and/or spring: 15 weeks - 3 hours of lecture and 1 hour of   record, illustrate, photograph, catalog, and interpret historical archaeological materials through a combination of lectures, lab exercises, and a research paper..

Site - Any place where human material remains are found; an area of human activity represented by material culture.

Square - In archaeology, this term refers to subdivisions of a site or a larger excavation unit Requirements this course satisfies: Satisfies the American Cultures requirement. Hours & Format. Fall and/or spring: 15 weeks - 3 hours of lecture and 1 hour of   record, illustrate, photograph, catalog, and interpret historical archaeological materials through a combination of lectures, lab exercises, and a research paper..Square - In archaeology, this term refers to subdivisions of a site or a larger excavation unit.The subdivisions are small regular units often square or rectangular in shape.A continuous network of squares is called a grid archeology.A continuous network of squares is called a grid.Stela or stele (plural stelae or stele) - A slab or column of stone, often decorated with carvings or inscriptions, erected at a site for ceremonial or historical purposes.Stone Age - A period when humans used stone as the primary material for making tools.

See also Paleolithic, Mesolithic, and Neolithic.Stratigraphy - The study of the layers (strata) of sediments, soils, and material culture at an archaeological site (also used in geology for the study of geological layers).Style - Characteristics of appearance used to classify objects into groups.Style helps to identify cultural and chronological changes and connections.Stylus - A sharpened, wooden implement with a wedge-shaped tip used for making cuneiform inscriptions.

Also, a pointed tool used by the Romans for writing on wax tablets.Surface Survey - The process of searching for archaeological remains by physically examining the landscape, usually on foot.There are many different types of survey techniques.Tell - A mound, especially in the Middle East, made up of the stratified remains of a succession of settlements.

When structures of a later period of occupation are built directly on top of an earlier layer, over time a settlement becomes raised above the landscape due to the buildup of layers.Temper - Coarse material, such as crushed shells or sand, added to clay to get a desired texture or consistency for making a pot or other artifact.Test pit - An excavation unit used in the initial investigation of a site or area, before large-scale excavation begins, that allows the archaeologist to "preview" what lies under the ground.Thermoluminescence (TL) - A radiometric dating technique in which the amount of light energy released when heating a sample of pottery or sediment is measured as an indicator of the time since it was last heated to a critical temperature.Three age system - Stone Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age: devised by Christian Thomsen in the early 19th century to organize artifacts chronologically and enhance museum displays, the system is based on the idea of technical progression of materials used in prehistory.

Total Station - An optical surveyor's instrument that combines a transit and an electronic distance measuring device.A total station calculates angles and distances for surveyed objects.This information can be used to create topographic maps.Tree rings - Growth rings formed annually in a tree's trunk, which often reflect the conditions in which the tree grew.Thicker rings are indicative of a good growing season with ideal temperatures and sufficient rain.

Trench - Term sometimes used to refer to an excavation unit, especially when the length is longer than the width.Type - In archaeology, a grouping of artifacts identified as distinct or created for comparison with other groups.This grouping may or may not coincide with the actual types or groups designed by the original manufacturers.

Typology - The study and chronological arrangement of artifacts, such as ceramics or lithics, into different types based on associating similar characteristics.

Typing makes a high volume of samples easier to study and compare.Underwater archaeology - The study of archaeological sites and shipwrecks that lie beneath the surface of the water.

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This is a dangerous form of archaeology and is often conducted with the aid of mechanized tools that can be operated remotely.Use-wear analysis - Microscopic analysis of artifacts or bones to find wear patterns or damage marks that indicate how the artifact was used.For example, marks running perpendicularly to the edge of a stone knife could indicate that the tool was used for scraping rather than cutting 27 Nov 2017 - How I Use Page Counts: I like to use page measures when I am writing conferences papers. A 15-minute presentation is about 8 double-spaced pages (12-point Times New Roman font, US letter size page, 1-inch margins). Since I know I will be orating these papers, I use a less formal style, which tends to  .

For example, marks running perpendicularly to the edge of a stone knife could indicate that the tool was used for scraping rather than cutting.

Varves - Annual clay deposits made by retreating and melting glaciers, used to measure recent geological events; may be used for relative dating.Ware - Types of ceramics; may refer to function, appearance/style, or fabric (as in cooking ware, ribbed ware, coarse ware) Who can do a custom archeology term paper Premium 26 pages / 7150 words CSE single spaced.Ware - Types of ceramics; may refer to function, appearance/style, or fabric (as in cooking ware, ribbed ware, coarse ware).Ziggurat - A rectangular, tiered or terraced structure of varying heights that served as a platform for temples in ancient Mesopotamia -- an area that was home to the Sumerians, Assyrians, Babylonians, and other ancient cultures Who can do a custom archeology term paper Premium 26 pages / 7150 words CSE single spaced.Ziggurat - A rectangular, tiered or terraced structure of varying heights that served as a platform for temples in ancient Mesopotamia -- an area that was home to the Sumerians, Assyrians, Babylonians, and other ancient cultures.Words, Pages, or Hours? How to Measure Writing Productivity November 27, 2017 When most people set daily writing goals, they typically aim to measure their progress through words, pages, or hours jreference.com/report/ecology.php.

Words, Pages, or Hours? How to Measure Writing Productivity November 27, 2017 When most people set daily writing goals, they typically aim to measure their progress through words, pages, or hours.

Selecting which measure to use is not always clear.This post offers considerations and insights for selecting among words, pages, or hours to measure writing productivity.Before We Start In this overview, I will provide general guidelines and suggestions when selecting between words, pages, and hours.Everyone has different writing needs, life situation, and goal, which impact their writing and writing output.This overview is meant to help you find a measure that is a strong personal fit.

What works for me might not work for you, but I hope these suggestions provide a helpful starting point.Most importantly, you can always adjust and change how you measure your writing productivity to better accommodate your personal situation.A Quick Note About Words and Pages Unlike hours, word and page counts measure your actual writing output.When I was an undergraduate in the US, my term paper length range was given in pages.When I was a master’s student in the UK, paper length was given in words.

As a doctoral student, I received length requirements in both pages and words.What’s my preference between words and pages? It depends.I tend to adjust my measures based on external requirements.If I am writing a conference paper, journal article, or book chapter, there are already measurable manuscript ranges set forth by the target venue (e., 15-20 pages double-spaced, no more than 5000 words, etc.In this scenario, I allow my target venue guidelines to dictate whether I use pages or words because it makes it easier to track my progress.However, when I wrote my dissertation – a longer manuscript with not-so-straightforward targets – the decision was not always so clear.The next sections offer considerations and insights when selecting between words and page AND hours.

Hours The Case for Words A clear advantage of setting word count goals is that your progress isn’t impacted by different fonts and formatting settings.Simply put, it’s a more accurate output measure than pages.If you are writing different sections or different projects in a day, then word counts can help you easily measure your total progress across all manuscripts.

When it comes to academic writing, our daily word count goals might not exceed a page, let alone pages.In this case, words are the most realistic output measure.How I Use Word Counts: Word counts are my go-to writing measure if I have a decent handle on what I am intending to write.Most writers might struggle to come up with realistic daily word goals.Personally, my target word counts changed depending on challenge-level of my writing task.

For less challenging tasks, my writing goal was around 500 words.For more challenging tasks, my goal was around 250-300 words.

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The Case for Pages Pages are a useful measure if you like to visualize your progress according to the formatting guidelines required of your manuscripts.Pages can also help track progress if you need to include figures or tables in your writing piece.Creating these images takes time and energy and can be an important part of the writing process for certain manuscripts Where to get archeology term paper Writing from scratch College Junior double spaced Business.

Creating these images takes time and energy and can be an important part of the writing process for certain manuscripts.

Page measures can track progress for both image creation and the writing associated with it.If you are at a point in your writing process where you are primarily editing, especially a formatted document, pages can be an easier measure of progress as opposed to words.How I Use Page Counts: I like to use page measures when I am writing conferences papers.A 15-minute presentation is about 8 double-spaced pages (12-point Times New Roman font, US letter size page, 1-inch margins).

Since I know I will be orating these papers, I use a less formal style, which tends to make the writing process slightly quicker.

This makes page goals a more feasible daily measure.I typically can write 1-2 pages (double-spaced) in a day.The Case for Hours Sometimes you need to put time into reading, researching, and thinking (i., indirect writing tasks) before you start writing.

This is especially true if you don’t know what to write or if you’re at the beginning of a writing project.These indirect writing tasks often require a lot of mental energy, but usually don’t produce a lot of obvious outputs (e.Measuring your progress with time will help you stay on track and not feel burned by unrealistic word or page count measures.

Word and page count goals can easily fluctuate depending on the difficulty of the writing task.If you want to avoid constantly changing your daily writing goals, then a time measure could be the most useful.This lack of fluctuation makes hour measures quite useful if you are trying to make writing a habit.This can be especially useful for long-term writing projects (e., books and dissertations) or if your field requires consistent publishing.A How I Use Hours as a Measure: Personally, I found time measures especially useful as I wrote my dissertation.I aimed to write at least 3 hours a day.Honestly, I can’t do academic writing for more than 4 hours a day.After the 3-hour mark, the quality of my writing and my overall pace drastically decreases.

On days when I had other things to do, my hour goal ranged from 1-2 hours of writing.Time measures gave me the flexibility to write challenging sections without the burden of meeting a certain word or page count goals.Tracking Writing Productivity When it comes to writing productivity, I highly recommend tracking your daily progress on an Excel sheet, in a notebook, or any other medium that allows you to enter in what you have achieved.This is important when you start a major writing project, especially if you have not been in the habit of writing recently.In the previous sections, I was able to outline what I typically could accomplish in a day for each measure because I tracked my progress.

Tracking your progress is key to creating realistic and measurable writing goals.Closing Thoughts This post offered considerations and insights when deciding among words, pages, or hours to measure writing productivity.Below is a quick graphic that summarizes the key takeaways.This graphic summarizes the key advantages of words, pages, and hours as writing productivity measures.You can definitely change your writing measure based on your writing goals.

The most important thing is to write! Which measure do you prefer using? Let me know in the comments below!