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Harvard System This guide is compiled by the University Library, to support students, researchers and academic staff at Anglia Ruskin University.In the new 6th edition, there is an option to use DOIs when referencing journal articles, and amendments to the section covering quotations.
To help you there is a printable quick guide, or a full guide inIs formatted as single-spaced within a reference, and double-spaced between references. Depending on the sentence construction, the names may or paper. (ii) Papers with dual authorship follow and are listed in alphabetical order by the last name of the second author. (iii) Papers with three or more authors appear .To help you there is a printable quick guide, or a full guide in .
In the first part we show you how to cite a reference in the text of your assignment, in the second part we have included instructions for each of the main source types such as books or web pages.Any similarity with published work are coincidental CGBC Research Team Harvard Center for Green Buildings and Cities.Any similarity with published work are coincidental.Search the full Guide Please enter a keyword for title/description:Additional support on how to introduce such references is available from Student Support in their guide.When making reference to an author's whole work in your text, it is sufficient to give the name followed by the year of publication of their work: When writing for a professional publication, it is good practice to make reference to other relevant published work.This view has been supported by Cormack (1994).
However, where you are mentioning a particular part of the work, and making direct or indirect reference to this, a page reference should be included: Cormack (1994, pp.
32-33) states that "when writing for a professional readership, writers invariably make reference to already published works".32-33), writers should be encouraged to reference published research when addressing professional readership.An indirect reference If you make reference to a work or piece of research without mentioning the author in the text then both the author's name and publication year are placed at the relevant point in the sentence or at the end of the sentence in brackets: Making reference to published work appears to be characteristic of writing for a professional audience (Cormack, 1994).Smith (1946) and Jones (1948) have both shown .
Directly using an Or indirectly Other examples using two or three authors.During the mid nineties research undertaken in Luton (Slater and Jones, 1996) showed that.Further research (Green, Harris and Dunne, 1969) showed When there are two or three authors for a work they should all be listed (in the order in which their names appear in the original publication), with the name listed last preceded by an and.meaning or indirectly: List these at the relevant point in the sentence or at the end of the sentence, putting the author's name, followed by the date of publication and separated by a semi-colon and within brackets.
Where several publications from a number of authors are referred to, then the references should be cited in chronological order (i.earliest first): Further research in the late forties (Smith, 1946; Jones, 1948) led to major developments.Recent research (Collins, 1998; Brown, 2001; Davies, 2008) shows that as suggested by Patel (1992; 1994) who found that.or indirectly: Earlier research by Dunn (1993a) found later research suggested again by Dunn (1993b) that .
If several works published in the same year are referred to on a single occasion, or an author has made the same point in several publications, they can all be referred to by using lower case letters (as above): Bloggs (1993a; 1993b) has stated on more than one occasion that .References to the work of an author that appears as a chapter, or part of a larger work, that is edited by someone else, should be cited within your text using the name of the contributory author not the editor of the whole work.In his work on health information, Smith (1975) states .In the reference at the end of your document, you should include details of both the chapter author followed by the details of the entire work Smith, J.One hundred and one ways to find information about health.
2 If the work is by a recognised organisation and has no personal author then it is usually cited under the body that commissioned the work.This applies to publications by associations, companies, government departments etc.such as Department of the Environment or Royal College of Nursing.
It is acceptable to use standard abbreviations for these bodies, e.RCN, in your text, providing that the full name is given at the first citing with the abbreviation in brackets: 1st citation: .following major pioneering research in 2006 undertaken by the Royal College of Nursing (RCN) it has been shown that .2nd citation: More recently the RCN (2007) has issued guidelines for.
Note that the full name is the preferred format in the reference list.Administering intravenous therapy to children in the community setting: Guidance for nursing staff.Some reports are written by specially convened groups or committees and can be cited by the name of the committee: Committee on Nursing (1972) Note there are some exceptions to this such as: BBC Philharmonic Orchestra Anonymous' or ' Anon' and the title of the work and date of publication.Every effort should be made to establish the authorship if you intend to use this work as supporting evidence in an academic submission: Marketing strategy (Anon.or indirectly: Earlier research (Smith, n.
Every effort should be made to establish the year of publication if you intend to use this work as supporting evidence in an academic submission.For further advice see Lawrence (1966, p." or indirectly: This is to be expected (Lawrence, 1966, p.Please note page numbers: preceded with p." On the topic of professional writing and referencing Cormack and Brown (1994, p."When writing for a professional readership, writers invariably make reference to already published works.
" In order for a reader to trace the quoted section it is good practice to give the number of the page where the quotation was found.You may also indent quotations, but should consult your Faculty, for guidance and the relevant Academic Regulations.A direct in-text reference: Research recently carried out in the Greater Manchester area by Brown (1966 cited in Bassett, 1986, p.In this example, Brown is the work which you wish to refer to, but have not read directly for yourself.
Bassett is the secondary source, where you found the summary of Brown's work.An indirect in-text citation would be: (Brown, 1966 cited in Bassett, 1986, p.142) It is important to realise that Bassett may have taken Brown's ideas forward, and altered their original meaning.If you need to cite a secondary reference it is recommended that, where possible, you read the original source for yourself rather than rely on someone else's interpretation of a work.For this reason it is best to avoid using secondary referencing.
The reference list at the end of your document should only contain works that you have read.In the above example you would only list the work by Bassett.When using selected information from a table or diagram, or reproducing an entire table or diagram, a reference must be made to the source.In the following example, information is from a table found on p267 of the book Management in the media: decision makers by Robert Brown published in 2005.
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The original source of the data used in the table in Brown's book was the National Statistics Office, 1985.
If you quote from this table in the text of your essay - treat as secondary referencing: ical figures demonstrate that only sixty percent of households had televisions in Britain by the 1970s (National Statistics Office, 1985 cited in Brown, 2005, p.If you reproduce the table in your essay: replicate the whole table, and add a citation below the table to acknowledge where the table was found Television ownership in England and Wales (Percentage of households) National Statistics Office, 1985 cited in Brown, 2005, p Help me with an research paper construction single spaced Premium Proofreading American.If you reproduce the table in your essay: replicate the whole table, and add a citation below the table to acknowledge where the table was found Television ownership in England and Wales (Percentage of households) National Statistics Office, 1985 cited in Brown, 2005, p.
Finally include the full details of the source, in this case the book in your reference list: Brown, R.
Management in the media: decision makers.When citing material found on a website, you should identify the authorship of the website.
This may be a corporate author - an organisation or company; a clue to this can be found by looking at the URL or web address jreference.com/thesis/best-website-to-purchase-custom-antique-literature-thesis-double-spaced-20-days-british-no-plagiarism.This may be a corporate author - an organisation or company; a clue to this can be found by looking at the URL or web address.To find the date of publication, reference to this might be found at the bottom of a web page relating to copyright, or from a date headline.In this example the authorship would be BBC and the date 2016.Recent research on meningitis (BBC, 2016) has shown.MAIN GUIDE PART 2: THE REFERENCE LIST USING BOOKS, JOURNALS AND NEWSPAPERS The purpose of a reference list is to enable sources to be easily traced by another reader.
Different types of publication require different amounts of information but there are certain common elements such as authorship, year of publication and title, which should be included.The Harvard style lays down standards for the order and content of information in the reference.Some variations of presentation are acceptable provided that they are used consistently.All items should be listed alphabetically by author or authorship, regardless of the format, whether books, websites or journal articles etc.
Where there are several works from one author or source they should by listed together, in date order, with the earliest work listed first.
The required elements for a book reference are: Author, Initials.(only include this if not the first edition) Place of publication (this must be a town or city, not a country): Publisher.
An in-text reference for the above examples would read: Organisations have been found to differ (Baron, 2008) when there is .Leading social scientists such as Redman (2006) have noted .*Place of publication can generally be found on the back of the title page in the address of the publishing company.
Where there are several locations, choose the UK one in preference to other.Please note where there is likely to be confusion with UK place names; for USA towns include the State in abbreviated form e.For books with multiple authors, all* the names should all be included in the order they appear in the document.Use an and to link the last two multiple authors.* Additional Advice for documents with very large numbers of authors.Some documents have very large numbers of authors, particularly in certain disciplines.There may be a very large numbers of authors and a wish not to include them all in a reference list.
In these cases it is recommended that advice from the Faculty is sought, to establish if it is permitted to cite only a reduced number.The required elements for a reference are: Authors, Initials.Reference The World Health Organisation, its history and impact.An in-text reference for the above examples would read: Leading organisations concerned with health (Adams, Weiss and Coatie, 2010) have proved that.A new theory (Barker, Kirk and Munday, 1988) has challenged traditional thinking.
Chapter author(s) surname(s) and initials.Title of chapter followed by In: Book editor(s) initials first followed by surnames with ed.Chapter number or first and last page numbers followed by full-stop.References Humanities information research.One hundred and one ways to find information about health.An in-text reference for the above example would read: (Samson, 1970) Remember that this must also be consistent with the citations in the text For multiple works the required elements for a reference are: Author, Initals.Works by the same author should be displayed in the order referenced in your assignment, earliest first (as above).An in-text reference for the above example would read: (Soros, 1966a) (Soros, 1966b) This also applies if there are several authors with the same surname.As an alternative their initials can be included in the citation.1966) So in the above example, if you have sources written by George Soros and also by Manuel Soros.In the full reference list you would list them in alphabeticsl order.Where ther are several works by one author, published in different years, these should be arranged in chronological order, with the earliest date first.Translated from (language) by (name of translator, initials first, then surname) Place of publication: Publisher.The voices of Marrakesh: a record of a visit.For major works of historic significance, the date of the original work may be included along with the date of the translation: Kant, I.Fundamental principles of the metaphysic of morals.For works in an another language, reference these in the same manner as an English language work but provide a translation.Students should check with their Faculty the validity of including original language works.
For works which are reprints of classic original works, the reference should include details of the original date of the work and reprinting details, the suggested elements for such references being: Author, Initials.An in-text reference for the above example would read: (Keynes, 1936) Leakey, R.Reprint of On the Origin of species by Charles Darwin, 1859.
An in-text reference for the above example would read: (Leakey, 1979) With a recommendation to mention Darwin and the original date in the text, but including Leakey as the in-text citation.E-books available through the University Library For e-books accessed through a password protected database from the University Library the required elements for a reference are: Author, Initials.
, Year, Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website < > Accessed date .
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Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website < > Accessed 12 May 2010 .Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website < > Accessed 9 June 2008 .For an open access e-book freely available over the internet such as through Google books The required elements for a reference are: Author, Initials This is the recommended Harvard Guide for Ulster students, except those from the Faculties of Arts or Life & Health Sciences Longer quotations should be indented, single-spaced and appear in double quotation marks. If necessary, use an (2013) Construction project management research compendium, Volume 1..For an open access e-book freely available over the internet such as through Google books The required elements for a reference are: Author, Initials.
Available at: e-book source Cookson, J.Available at: Google Books < > Accessed 9 June 2008Guide to Referencing in the Harvard Style at Ulster Ulster University nbsp.Available at: Google Books < > Accessed 9 June 2008 .For an e-book from specific e-readers and other devices such as Kindle, or Nook The required elements for a reference are: Author, Initials., Year, Available at: e-book source and web address Accessed date .Available at: < > Accessed 9 June 2012 .If you include a quotation from an ebook without page numbers, use the section heading or chapter heading as a guide to locating your quotation, if available.
The required elements for a reference are: Authorship, Year.type of medium Place of publication (if known): Publisher.Followed by Available at: include web address or URL for the actual pdf, where available Accessed date .Available at: < /publications/inflationreport/ > Accessed 20 April 2009 .Health inequalities: progress and next steps.
Available at: < /en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH 085307> Accessed 9 June 2008 .The required elements for a reference are: Author, Initials.Full Title of Journal, Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page number(s).The Bretton Woods proposal: a brief look.
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Full Title of Journal, type of medium Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers if available.Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website < > Accessed date .The Bretton Woods proposal: an in depth look.Political Science Quarterly, e-journal 42(6).Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website < > Accessed 12 June 2005 .An example of a Cochrane Review Katchamart, W.Methotrexate monotherapy versus methotrexate combination therapy with non-biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs for rheumatoid arthritis.Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, online 4 (CD008495) Available at: < /doi/10.
1002/ 008495/abstract> Accessed 6 August 2013 .An example of an early view article from the BMJ Currie, G.Long acting ?2 agonists in adult asthma.BMJ e-journal Early view article: Accepted 20 May 2013, Published 6 August 2013, BMJ2013 ;347:f4662.Full Title of Journal or Magazine, online Available at: web address (quote the exact URL for the article) Accessed date .Popular Science and Technology, online Available at: < /popsci37b144110vgn/html> Accessed 22 June 2009 .You can choose to use the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) instead of the format/location/access date.The DOI is a permanent identifier and replaces a permanent web address for online articles.
They are often found at the start/end of an article or on the database landing page for the article.If an article does not have a DOI, use one of the other e-journal article formats.Full Title of Journal, e-journal Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers if available.A phenomenographic study of English faculty's conceptions of information literacy.Journal of Documentation, e-journal 63(2), pp.Should top universities be led by top researchers and are they?: A citations analysis.Journal of Documentation, e-journal 62(3), pp.Full Title of Journal, type of medium Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers if available.Available through: Source Accessed date .The Bretton Woods proposal: a brief look.
Political Science Quarterly, e-journal 42(6).Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website < > Accessed 12 June 2005 .Every effort should be made to read the article in full if you intend to use this work as supporting evidence in an academic submission.Full Title of Newspaper, Day and month before page numbers and column line.Corporate manslaughter: new issues for lawyers.4b - "4" indicates that the article is on the fourth page of the newspaper, columns of print on a page are labelled left to right alphabetically, so in this example "b" indicates that this is the second column of newsprint across the page from left to right.) An example of corporate authorship where the newspaper article authorship is not stated.Corporate manslaughter: responses from the legal profession (Editorial comments), The Times, 8 Sep.
For newspaper articles found in online newspapers, the required elements for a reference are: Author or corporate author, Year.Name of newspaper, type of medium additional date information.
Available at: < /tol/news/uk/scotland/ > Accessed 17 March 2005 .
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Is this the start of a new home loan war HSBC vows to lend £1billion to homebuyers with 10% deposits.Available at: < /news/article-1168461/ > Accessed on 20 April 2009 .An in-text reference for the above examples would read: (Chittenden, et al Should i purchase a custom construction research paper Turabian American single spaced University.
An in-text reference for the above examples would read: (Chittenden, et al.
2003) (Coney, 2009) It is good practice to keep in your files a copy of the first page of any web pages you use USING OTHER SOURCE TYPES The required elements are: Short title (with key words capitalized), which includes the year followed by the chapter number in brackets.For Acts prior to 1963, the regal year and parliamentary session are included: Road Transport Lighting Act 1957.For an in-text reference: If you need to refer to a specific section and paragraph, include the section, paragraph number and subsection.Statutory Instrument Short title (with key words capitalized).the abbreviation 'SI' followed by the year of publication and the SI number.Public Offers of Securities Regulations 1995.
Code of Practice For an in-text reference: When discussing a Code of Practice linked to legislation, refer to the code of practice within the text of your writing and cite the piece of legislation to which is attached The recent code of practice (Mental Capacity Act 2005) noted that staff should.Full reference Mental Health Act 2005, Code of Practice, 2007.(Issued by Lord Chancellor on 23 April 2007 in accordance with sections 42 and 43 of the Act) London: TSO.
For an in- text reference: When discussing the code of practice linked to a professional organisation cite the professional organisation.(MNC 2008) Full reference The required elements for a reference are: Authorship, which may be part of the title, Year.Title, in italics if a separate element, offically assigned number such as a Command number as it is on the document, within brackets.Royal Commission on civil liability and compensation for personal injury, 1978.
Select Committee on nationalised industries (1978-9), 1978.Consumers and the nationalised industries: prelegislative hearings (HC 334, 1978-9).
House of Commons, Home Affairs Committee, 2012.(HC 523, Sixth Report of Session 2012-13) - Report, Together with Formal Minutes.It is recommended that you follow accepted legal citation, which is not part of the Harvard system.For this the required elements for a reference are: Name of the parties involved in the law case, Year of reporting (in square brackets where there is no volume, or round brackets as indicated by the reference you are using) abbreviation for the law reporting series, part number/case number/page reference if available.R v White (John Henry) 2005 EWCA Crim 689, 2005 WL 104528.In the last example you should only quote the two law reports if you have used them.An in-text reference for the above example would read: In the recent case of R v White (John Henry) (2005), the defence noted .For an Author or corporate author, Year.Title of document or page, type of medium Available at: include web site address/URL(Uniform Resource Locator) Accessed date Accessed 4 June 2005 .It is good practice to keep in your files a copy of the front page of any website you use containing reference details Author, Initials.type of medium Collection, Document number.Geographical Town/Place: Name of Library/Archive/Repository.An in-text reference for the above example would read: (Brown, 1915) Corporate author, Year of Publication.Identifying letters and numbers and full title of Standard, Place of publication: Publisher.The required elements for an e-version are: Corporate author, Year.Identifying letters and numbers and full title of Standard online .Place of publication (if available): Publisher.Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website < > Accessed date .Racking strength and stiffness of timber frame wall panels online .Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website < > Accessed 31 August 2011 .
Corporate Authority, Year of Publication.Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website < > Accessed date .(This example is for an Online version from CIS): Building Regulations, 2016.
Building Regulations 2010: Approved Documents L1A: Conservation of fuel and power in new dwellings (2013 edition incorporating 2016 amendments) (for use in England).Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website < > Accessed 8 November 2017 .Patent number (status, if an application).
Example: Tableting sugar and compositions containing it.
Tin can manufacture and method of sealing.UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs), 2005.6th Global forum on reinventing government: towards participatory and transparent governance.Seoul, Republic of Korea, 24-27 May 2005.
The required elements for a conference paper are: Author, Initials.In: followed by editor or name of organisation, Full title of conference.
Evaluating surveys of transparent governance.
In: UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs), 6th Global forum on reinventing government: towards participatory and transparent governance.Seoul, Republic of Korea, 24-27 May 2005.Making shared decision-making a reality: no decision about me, without me.The required elements for an e-version are: Authorship/Organisation, Year.Available at: include web address/URL Accessed on date Department of Health, 2001.
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Available at: < /prod consum dh/groups/dh digitalassets/@dh/@en/documents/digitalasset/dh > Accessed 12 September 2011 .Making shared decision-making a reality: no decision about me, without me Where to buy a college construction research paper at an affordable price 89 pages / 24475 words A4 (British/European) Premium Business.Making shared decision-making a reality: no decision about me, without me.
Available at: < /publications/nhs > Accessed 12 September 2011 .Customer expectations in the world of electronic banking: a case study of the Bank of Britain.The required elements for an e-version are: Author, Initials.
The legacy of leadership - a study of leadership influence within a single organisation jreference.com/thesis/world-war-i.php.The legacy of leadership - a study of leadership influence within a single organisation.The required elements for a reference are: The name of the Institution where the document originates (e.
Commission) Form (eg Directive or Decision) Year/Legislation number/ Initials of Institution followed by the date it was passed if known, followed by the title, all in italics.Council Directive 2001/29 /EC of 22 May 2001 on the harmonisation of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society.Commission Decision 93/42/EEC of 21 December 1992 concerning additional guarantees relating to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis for bovines destined for Denmark.Council Regulation(EC) 1984/2003 of 8 April 2003 introducing a system for the statistical monitoring of trade in blue tuna, swordfish and big eye tuna within the Community 2003 OJ L295/1.
Council Regulation (EEC) 1612/68 5 of 15 October 1968 on freedom of movement for workers within the Community.It is important to check with the lecturer who has given the lecture that they are in agreement with course material being included in any Reference List.If they are in agreement, and if it is not a publicly available document, it is important to provide a copy in the Appendix of your work.The citation to the course material in your Reference List should then also refer to the Appendix.It would also be advisable to follow up any sources mentioned in your lecture and read these for yourself.
Course material / lecture notes - print version The required elements for a reference are: Lecturer/Author, Initials.Title of item, Module Code Module title.Guide to project management, BD45001S Management.(See appendix X) (Williams, 2008) Lecturer/Author, Initials.Title of item, Module Code Module Title online via internal VLE , HE Institution.Available at: web address if available over the internet, otherwise indicate if available through WebCT, SharePoint or other virtual learning environment address.Guide to project management, BD45001S Management.
online via internal VLE Anglia Ruskin University Available at:
If they exist it is good practice to include the line number, but Act and Scene numbers must always be included.Classic plays are available in edited editions and the editor's name should be included with your reference.The required elements for a reference are: Author, Initials.(only include this if not the first edition) Place of publication: (this must be a town or city, not a country) Publisher.Twelfth Night (World's Classics series).
An in-text reference for the above examples would read: Much speculation has occurred when Malvolio imagines he might marry Olivia, "there is example for't; the Lady of the Strachy married the yeoman of the wardrobe" (Shakespeare, Twelfth Night II,v,36-7).
Where you have conducted an interview - using a primary source.You are recommended to check with your Faculty Office for detailed guidance on what you may include.Where you are conducting the interview, it is important to check with the person being interviewed that they will be in agreement with a transcript of the interview being made available.Since this will not be a publicly available document, it may be included as a transcript within an Appendix in your piece of work.The citation for this interview should refer to the Appendix.
In an interview (Appendix A) the findings of the report were reviewed and White agreed with .In the Appendix you should include details such as: Interviewee's name.type of medium/format Location and exact date of interview .Where you are using an interview from a source such as a television programme The suggested elements for a reference are: Interviewee name, Initials.name of programme) Interviewed by (first name and surname).type of medium/format Name of Channel, Date of transmission, time of transmission.radio RTE Radio 1, 15 February 1999, 08:30.An in-text reference for the above examples would read: (Ahern, 1999) For a print press release: Corporate author of press release, Year.
For an electronic press release: Corporate author of press release, Year.Available at: web address Accessed date .RCN praises health care staff as infections continue to fall.Available at: < /newsevents/news/article/uk/rcn praises health care staff as infections continue to fall> Accessed 23 June 2009 .
Sura or Chapter: Verse An in-text reference for the Bible could look like this.
"In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth" (The Bible, Genesis.1:1) Convention dictates that you do not use page numbers with religious texts The required elements for a full reference are: Full title, Year.The Bible: contemporary English version, 2000.
References are listed fully in alphabetical order according to the nbsp uvic
For other sacred texts, it is important that you clearly identify the location of the text that you cite using the appropriate numbering system.The required elements for a citation are: (Publisher, Year) Dictionary publisher, Year.online London: Encyclopedia Britannica (UK) 10 Jun 2013 - Try to stick to about 2 single space pages. 2. The first section should discuss previous research that is directly relevant to your paper (not every single paper written on the topic). The review need not only be topical, but can include research that employs the same methods you are using, analyzes a similar .online London: Encyclopedia Britannica (UK).
Available through: < /intro> Accessed 12 June 2011 .When using subject specific or non-generic dictionaries, the author/editor can be used as author, and the referencing guidelines for a book can be followed.Building surveying > Pathology > Modern methods of construction > Meeting challenges with MMC ISurv This guide outlines the Harvard APA-style guidelines to bibliographic referencing only. For guidelines on the The bibliography/reference list is presented at the end of the essay using single line-spacing. (as shown on page 11 of this Allies at war: America, Europe and the crisis over Iraq. [Electronic version]. New York: .Building surveying > Pathology > Modern methods of construction > Meeting challenges with MMC ISurv.online Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library < > Accessed 21 May 2013 .Where you have gathered and manipulated data from a data source like FAME or OECD and placed this in a table of your own making, we recommend that you give the source and year of currency for the data, as the in-text reference and include a note to an appendix.In the appendix you can reproduce the source tables you have used to create your table and include adequate details of how you generated the table you have used in your work.For a computer program downloaded from the internet, the required elements of a reference are: Authorship/Organisation, Year.
(if available) Available at:
online Available at: Accessed 16 July 2014 .
*URL means Uniform Resource Locator - an address identifying the location of a file on the Internet If a URL is exceedingly long, or the result of a personal search on a website, you can give the website's home page address with the routing or web path, showing your reader how to get from the home page to the specific page you have referenced.It is good practice to keep in your files a copy of the first page of any web pages you use.type of medium Place: Producer/Publisher.
Available at: include web site address/URL(Uniform Resource Locator) Accessed date .Available at: < /Information/ ?Level1id=447&Level 2id=0> Accessed 23 July 2005 .The fortunes and the misfortunes of the famous Moll Flanders.online Champaign, Illinois: Project Gutenberg.
Available at: < /etext/370> Accessed 18 November 2005 .Independent Inquiry into Access to Healthcare for People with Learning Disabilities, n.online Available at: < /Healthcare easy > Accessed 10 April 2009 .
Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines, 2001.(SIGN publication 20) online Edinburgh: SIGN (Published 2001) Available at: < /pdf/ > Accessed 17 March 2005 .It is good practice to keep in your files a copy of the first page of any web pages you use Permission should be sought before these sources are quoted.For email correspondence or discussion lists the suggested elements for a reference are: Name of sender, email address, Year.
Message or subject title from posting line.type of medium Recipient's name and (email address).details of where message is archived) Accessed date .Available at: < /2004 07 01 defer > Accessed 7 July 2005 .Copies of such correspondence should be kept, as these may need to be submitted as an appendix in an academic submission Author, Initials.Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) Accessed date .Conservationists are not making themselves heard.Available at: < /science/blog/2009/jun/18/conservation-extinction-open-ground> Accessed 23 June 2009 .Blog title, medium Comment posting date.Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) Accessed date .Conservationists are not making themselves heard.Science blog, blog 18 June, Available at: < /science/blog/2009/jun/18/conservation-extinction-open-ground> Accessed 23 June 2009 .
An in-text reference for the above examples would read: (Whitton, 2009) Author, Initial.Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) Accessed date .
Sharing good practice, Forum for International Students.Available at: < > Accessed 23 June 2009 .
com/ bigredcorporation/promotions> Accessed 13 November 2010 .On the red couch with Quartz publisher Jay Lauf.Available at:< /2014/06/11/on-the-red-couch> Accessed 3 July 2014 .IMAGES The required elements for a reference are: Full title of DVD or video.(if relevant) Country of origin: Film studio or maker.Great films from the 80s: a selection of clips from Warner Brothers top films from the 1980s.For a film the suggested elements should include: Title, Year of release.USA: Republic Pictures named episode, the suggested elements should include: Episode name, Year of broadcast.type of medium Broadcasting organisation and Channel, date and time of transmission.
Doctor Who, 50th anniversary episode series.
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If the episode is not named, the suggested elements should include: Series title, Year of broadcast.
Broadcasting organisation and Channel, date and time of transmission Little Britain, 2006.TV programme BBC, BBC2, 30 January 2006 20 Anglia Ruskin University Library - Harvard System. Harvard System. Welcome to our Guide to the Harvard System of Referencing (6th edition). This guide is compiled by the University Library, to support students, researchers and academic staff at Anglia Ruskin University Official publications such as Command Papers..
TV programme BBC, BBC2, 30 January 2006 20.
For a broadcast series: Series Title, Year of broadcast.type of medium Broadcasting organisation and Channel, date and time of transmission 2. Table of Contents. Formatting a Research Paper in APA Style . Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). If the title requires more than one line, double-space between lines. • Cover sheet: Other than the running head, only three things should appear: Title of the paper. Your name..type of medium Broadcasting organisation and Channel, date and time of transmission.TV programme BBC, BBC2, 30 January 2006 20 2. Table of Contents. Formatting a Research Paper in APA Style . Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). If the title requires more than one line, double-space between lines. • Cover sheet: Other than the running head, only three things should appear: Title of the paper. Your name..
TV programme BBC, BBC2, 30 January 2006 20.
For a broadcast obtained through Box of Broadcasts: Little Britain, 2006.TV programme recording BBC, BBC2, 30 January 2006 20:00.Available through: Box of Broadcasts database Accessed 12 August 2011 .Artist/Photographer's name (if known), Year of production.
type of medium Collection Details as available (Collection, Document number, Geographical Town/Place: Name of Library/Archive/Repository).China 1944: A mother resting her head on her sick child's pillow in the Canadian Mission Hospital in Chengtu.photograph (London, Imperial War Museum Collection).For an electronic reference the suggested elements are: Artist/Photographer's name, Year of production.type of medium Available at: include web site address/URL(Uniform Resource Locator) and additional details of access, such as the routing from the homepage of the source.electronic print Available at: < /store/product ?cPath=4&products id=88> Accessed 18 June 2008 .When using an image from a book or journal article, to provide enhancement within an essay or a PowerPoint presentation, an in text reference should be included within the essay text or on the slide, and a full reference included at the end of the piece of work.type of medium Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) Accessed date .
Where the author is not known, begin the reference with the title of the work.
Where none of the usual details are known, (such as author, date, or image title) try to find the filename of the image (for example by right clicking and looking at the properties of the file).If none of the above is available begin the reference with the subject and title of the work.Child placing gauze over knee wound n.image online Available at: < /2009/12/ > Accessed 01 June 2010 .
Nimbus 1 returned sharp cloud cover photos, plus night time infra red pictures n.image online Available at: < /dev/hillger/Nimbus-1 > Accessed 13 November 2008 .An in-text reference for the above examples would read: (Child placing gauze, n.The required elements for Digimap are: Map publisher (origin), Year of publication.Source online Available through Library website < > Accessed date .Anglia Ruskin University: Chelmsford Campus, 1:1.Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library < > Accessed 31 August 2011 .The suggested elements for Google Earth are: Google Earth version (if applicable), Year data released.
Image details - location, co-ordinates, elevation.Data set (if applicable) online Available through: URL Accessed date .Available through: < /earth/ > Accessed 31 August 2011 .(if relevant) type of medium date of transmission.Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) Accessed date .Episode Seventeen (March 2008), The National Gallery Monthly Podcast.
(if relevant) type of medium Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) Accessed date .
video online Available at: < /watch#!v=eTapK5dRaw4> Accessed 23 June 2009 .Sustainable development: the bigger picture.
video online Available at: < /keZmg56ahdM> Accessed 23 June 2012 .An in-text reference for the above example would read: The principle research states "The need for substainable development." (Defra 2007) MUSIC SOURCES Name, Initials(s) (of originator/composer), Year.medium Name of recording artist/performer/conductor.
Sound recording Performed by the Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra conducted by Richard Hickox.Im Abendrot from Strauss's Four last songs, 2002.Sound recording performed by Kiri te Kanawa and the London Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Andrew Davis.Sound recording Performed by The Beatles, remastered 2009.Yellow submarine Sound recording Performed by The Beatles on the album Revolver, remastered 2009.Fools rush in reissued 2002 Sound recording Performed by Rick Nelson on the album Rick Nelson Greatest hits.sleeve notes Place of Distribution: Distribution company.Download Available at: Accessed date Artist, Year.In: Artist, Year if different, Title of recording medium Place of Distribution: Record Label.In: Various artists, Tropicalia: A Brasilian Revolution In Sound, CD .
Place of distribution: Record Label Oasis, 1994.Name, Initial(s) (of originator/composer).Live performance Name of performing artist.
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UNPUBLISHED WORKS AND MISSING DETAILS Pattison, J.
, (in press) A new book that I have written., (in press) Demons or diamonds: a study to ascertain the range of attitudes present in health professionals to children with conduct disorder This guide is adapted from the American Psychological Association (APA) 6th style, which is the style which must be used by in the teaching they have received, the research they have undertaken and which properly references Instead it should be placed as a separate paragraph, single-spaced and indented. e.g √..
, (in press) Demons or diamonds: a study to ascertain the range of attitudes present in health professionals to children with conduct disorder.
Journal of Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing.(Accepted for publication December 2002) Anglia Ruskin University Library Harvard System.(Accepted for publication December 2002).Permission should be sought before these sources are quoted, and a copy retained for reference.Introducing Cow & Gate Omneo Comfort: an infant milk for digestive comfort.letter (Personal communication, 2 June 2000).1995? 199? probable decade Occasionally it may not be possible to identify an author, place or publisher.This applies particularly to what is known as 'grey literature', such as some government documents, leaflets and other less official material.no date Information such as place and publisher not found on the document, but traced from other sources, should be placed in square brackets.You should, however be very cautious about using as supporting evidence material where you cannot identify the author, date or source.
GOOD ACADEMIC PRACTICE If you understand the reasons for referencing it is evident why you should not pass off work of others as your own.Failing to reference appropriately could result in your assessors thinking you are guilty of plagiarism - the act of using somebody else's work or ideas as your own.You will find information relating to academic honesty in various student documentation including module guides and student handbooks.The university has recently introduced Turnitin to assist you in identifying where you have used original material so that you can ensure it is correctly referenced in your submission.This is supported by the University policy relating to academic honesty.
Student handbooks for both undergraduate and post graduate students refer to the University Library Harvard Guide for guidance.Students should however check the relevant guidelines for their subject within the Faculty.For more information see the University Library serction on referencing NB: To assist students when they run their work through Turnitin, Double quotation marks are recommended.Demonstrate that you have read widely and deeply.Show your understand a topic and who is responsible for its development.
By providing the original source you are acknowledging that you have read the work and recognise the original author(s) ideas.Help the reader locate where you obtained each quote or idea.A reference list is always required when you cite other people's work within your assignment.What is referencing-Evidence? In academic writing, to support and provide evidence for your arguments, you cite the material you have used.You do this by referring to, or citing, the authors responsible for the information.
This information can come from journal or newspaper articles, government reports, books or specific chapters of books, research dissertations or theses, or be material over the internet etc.When you cite someone's work in the text of your assignment (an in-text citation), you also need to create a full reference.This gives the full details for the information source so that it can be traced by anyone who reads your work.Evidence must be from authoritive sources! The Harvard System There are many systems for the citation of references.
Most Faculties at Anglia Ruskin University expect students to use the Harvard style of referencing -which is an author and date system.A two part reference system In-text - citing within the assignment script- author's surname and year of publication Reference list at the end of the assignment- full details of the document eg a book In-text citation Essential components of an essay are "an effective structure " (Redman, 2006, p.22), together with a leading introduction which.Good essay writing: a social sciences guide.Remember is to be consistent in the way you record your references.
Reference List or Bibliography: What's the difference? A Reference List includes details for everything that you cite in within your assignment.It should be in alphabetical order by author with all the different types of material in one sequence (See Section 3.A Reference List is always required when you cite other people's work within your assignment.Sometimes the terms reference list and bibliography are used interchangeably.
Make sure you know what is required for your assignment.Check the module guide before you complete your assignment.Some Departments may ask you to produce a Bibliography.This is a list of relevant items that you have used to help you prepare for the assignment but which are not necessarily cited in your assignment eg.
general background reading to familiarise yourself with the topic.
An annotated bibliography includes the full reference to sources with the addition of notes, which summarise and evaluate the source and will be of variable length, depending on the assessment this may be an independent project or part of a larger research project.Is referencing included in the Word Count? Check the Academic Regulations section 6.69 for details of what is excluded from the word count of a submission.These can be accessed on the University website under the section for the Academic Office.How do I print this guide? You can open and print individual sections Sal currently runs courses in materials science and energy at the Harvard University Graduate School of Design and conducts research on new types of “architecture-d materials” for the thermoregulation of future buildings.
Salmaan studied product design before undertaking an engineering doctorate (EngD) hosted by Brunel University and Buro Happold consulting engineers.During this time, he designed and tested a biologically inspired material for protecting buildings from solar and ambient heat while allowing them to cool through radiation to the sky and outer space.After completing his doctorate, Salmaan continued at Buro Happold as a facade engineer, specializing in the design of material systems in extreme climates, such as the perforated, multilayered dome of the Louvre Abu Dhabi.He then moved to the Specialist Modeling Group at Foster + Partners, continuing to develop his research interests in the context of a number of high-profile building projects, such as the Masdar Institute, the Apple Campus, and Bloomberg Place.Jonathan Grinham, DDes, Postdoctoral Fellow » Jonathan's research interests range from paper robots to thermal monocoques.
He received a doctor of design degree at the Harvard University Graduate School of Design, where his dissertation developed novel fabrication and design methods for milli- to micro-scale fluid-flow systems for thermal control in buildings.His past research agendas track themes in advanced materials, interactive and responsive environments, embedded computation, computational design, and automated fabrication workflows.
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Jonathan has taught technology seminars and led design studios at the Harvard University Graduate School of Design, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the Catholic University of America, and Virginia Tech.His professional practice ranges from super-tall mixed-use to single-family residential buildings to facade consulting.Jonathan holds a BArch and an MsArch from Virginia Tech It is described in the style guide of the American Psychological. check your campus library or writing center for the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Five Methods: All lines which, in normal writing, would be single-spaced. Guide to writing an APA style research paper. APA Style (American Psychological..
Jonathan holds a BArch and an MsArch from Virginia Tech.
, Postdoctoral Fellow » Wenbo’s research interests primarily involve the smart grid area, including algorithms and systems for managing smart homes, smart buildings, microgrids with renewables, energy storage units, and various smart loads.His research has been published in top engineering journals, and one of his papers is constantly ranked as one of the most popular online articles in the journal IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid Help me do custom construction research paper high quality one day Academic 57 pages / 15675 words Graduate.His research has been published in top engineering journals, and one of his papers is constantly ranked as one of the most popular online articles in the journal IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid.Wenbo has a PhD from the University of California, Los Angeles, an MASc from the University of British Columbia, and a BS from Xi’an Jiaotong University Help me do custom construction research paper high quality one day Academic 57 pages / 15675 words Graduate.
Wenbo has a PhD from the University of California, Los Angeles, an MASc from the University of British Columbia, and a BS from Xi’an Jiaotong University.
, Postdoctoral Fellow » Ran's primary research areas are environmental economics and labor economics in China.His recent research interests include estimating the economic value of clean environments in developing countries and the impacts of pollution regulation on the real estate market in China.Ran received a PhD in economics from Sun Yat-sen University.
During his PhD studies, Ran received a national scholarship from the Chinese Ministry of Education and joined the China Air Filtration Project at Harvard University.He is also currently a Wertheim Fellow in the Labor and Worklife Program at the Harvard Law School and a visiting fellow at the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)., Postdoctoral Fellow » Bing’s primary research interest is building performance informed design, including built environment simulation technologies and their application in design.
Bing received a Doctor in Design Studies degree at the Harvard Graduate School of Design and his dissertation was entitled “Decision-Making Support in Early Design Stage for High Performance Naturally Ventilated Buildings.” He recently developed a design decision-making support system for early-stage design considering natural ventilation potential and embedded the system in Rhino Grasshopper.The paper also presented the potential of building performance informed design as a new design methodology.Bing holds a Master in Design Studies degree in Energy and Environments from the Harvard Graduate School of Design and a Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering degree from Tsinghua University in China.He has also worked as a design consultant for Transsolar, focusing on computational fluid dynamics.
His previous work has been published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at international conferences., Postdoctoral Fellow » Wentao’s primary research areas are computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling for buildings and cities, implementing real-time CFD simulations for net-zero buildings, and natural ventilation design.His dissertation was on experimental and numerical study of natural ventilation for buildings with large openings.Wentao has four years’ experience in Chinese and Danish industry, where he worked on CFD consulting, HVAC design and energy retrofits for sport architecture and marine ships.
He was also a postdoctoral researcher at ETH for two years.
, Research Associate » Bin’s primary research areas are energy modeling and HVAC system simulation.Her recent research projects include developing a web platform for smart building applications, quantifying uncertainties in HVAC system operations, and developing data-oriented models to predict building energy demand and HVAC system performance for the purpose of decision-making.Bin received both her bachelor and master of engineering degrees from Tsinghua University.
She received her PhD from the University of Pennsylvania, where she conducted a dissertation on “A Bayesian Approach for Predicting Building Cooling and Heating Consumption and Applications in Fault Detection.”Spyridon Ampanavos Spyridon is a doctor of design studies student at the Harvard University Graduate School of Design.His research interest is centered around the synergy of artificial intelligence with human designers and he is exploring the influence of digitally mediated collaborative environments in the design process.His past research at the GSD includes fabrication workflows with industrial robots, interactive data visualization, VR applications, and web and software development for environmental data, water strategies and coastal simulations.Spyridon holds a Master of Design in Technology with Distinction from the Harvard Graduate School of Design and a Diploma of Architectural Engineering from the National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
Yujiao Chen » Yujiao is a DDes and CSE dual-degree student at the Harvard University Graduate School of Design and the Harvard John A.Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences.Previously a research associate at the CGBC, she worked on projects ranging from building simulations to sustainable urban development.She has also worked as a research assistant at the T.C Chan Center for Building Simulation and Energy Studies and at the Harvard Building Energy and Simulation Lab and as a Sustainable Community Leader for the Harvard University Office for Sustainability.
Yujiao received a bachelor of architecture degree from Zhejiang University in 2012, a master in environmental building design degree from the University of Pennsylvania in 2013, and a master’s in design studies with a concentration in energy and environments from the Harvard University Graduate School of Design in 2014.Her previous work has been published in international journals, including Applied Energy, Building and Environment, the Journal of Environmental Management, Environment International, and Building Simulation.Sabrina Osmany » Sabrina is a PhD student in architectural technology at the Harvard University Graduate School of Design and Harvard Graduate School of Arts and Sciences.Her research explores how agency is mediated by digital interfaces.Her interdisciplinary work is divided between the development of tools to study decision-making in interactive systems as well as the development of experimental frameworks to study choice behavior.
During her time at Harvard, Sabrina is particularly excited to explore machine learning and multi-agent simulation as tools to study human dynamics in the forthcoming age of consumer virtual reality, which promises real-time human avatars aplenty.She is a recent graduate of NYU’s Interactive Telecommunications Program (MPS) where she prototyped interfaces for tangible and social computing.Her work includes the development of a programming language in Urdu, a mobile application that uses computer vision to identify and connect with network devices, and a one-hundred-and-twenty-foot video installation at InterActiveCorp headquarters in New York City.Nari Yoon » Nari is a doctor of design studies student at the Harvard University Graduate School of Design.Her cross-disciplinary design research involves high performance, urban airflow, building energy simulation, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD).
Her academic and professional interests range from architectural design to engineering for sustainability.Before joining the DDes program, she worked as a building performance analyst and CFD engineer at Cradle North America, where she helped CFD users with their projects and conducted independent studies on CFD simulations for buildings.Her recent study about BIM-integrated CFD automation demonstrated the potential for applying CFD to design phases, and her current research on the prediction of natural ventilation effectiveness aims to assist with making design decisions in an interactive way.She has held several workshops and lectures about the applications of CFD for buildings at professional conferences and academic institutions.Nari holds a master’s degree in design studies from the Harvard University Graduate School of Design and a BArch from Hongik University in Korea.
Wei Zhang » Wei is a second year PhD student in architectural technology at the Harvard University Graduate School of Design and the Harvard Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and his focus is on artificial intelligence and building science.As an engineer in France, he was in charge of confinement systems design and HVAC&R systems design for the reactor building of the EPR power plant for over four years.He also worked in complex system analysis and modeling for more than three years in Paris and Grenoble, France.He holds a DPEA post-master’s degree in architectural studies from ENSA Paris-La Villette, a Dipl me d'Ing nieur in mechanical engineering from INSA Toulouse, and a BEng degree from Southeast University in China.He also has research experience at the University of Toronto, ETH Zurich, and the Aarhus School of Architecture.