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How to write a chemistry lab report platinum british 2 days


Photophysical properties of platinum ii acetylide complexes the nbsp

2 2− ( 2); however, the result is a new family of compounds.We detail the crystallization procedure, followed by characterization of their crystal structure and physical properties including colour and electrical conductivity.

Results Crystal growth and characterization We developed a simple kinetically controlled crystallization procedure to provide access to hitherto unknown Pt-chain systems Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78. It is a dense, malleable,   Platinum is used in catalytic converters, laboratory equipment, electrical contacts   Platinum does oxidize, forming PtO2, at 500 °C; this oxide can be easily   The metal was used by pre-Columbian Americans near modern-day  .Results Crystal growth and characterization We developed a simple kinetically controlled crystallization procedure to provide access to hitherto unknown Pt-chain systems.

The petri-paper three-zone crystallization method (Fig.2) isolates the reagents, located in zones 1 and 3, from the crystallization region, zone 2 How to write lab report chemistry online US Letter Size British Premium 124 pages / 34100 words.2) isolates the reagents, located in zones 1 and 3, from the crystallization region, zone 2.In practice, this is achieved by using filter paper separating the zones, thereby slowing the rate of salt diffusion How to write lab report chemistry online US Letter Size British Premium 124 pages / 34100 words.In practice, this is achieved by using filter paper separating the zones, thereby slowing the rate of salt diffusion.Aqueous 1 and 2 were added to zones 1 and 3, respectively.

After 2 days, bright yellow crystals of HT-Pt(II) 2(bpy) 3) is delocalized along the Pt chain in the <001> direction jreference.com/essay/best-website-to-write-a-transportation-essay-mla-a4-british-european-british-100-plagiarism-free.After 2 days, bright yellow crystals of HT-Pt(II) 2(bpy) 3) is delocalized along the Pt chain in the <001> direction.The electronic band structure ( b) depicts the metallic character in the direction of the delocalized Pt 2.The addition of 2 e − (denoted by *) increases the Fermi level (dotted line) to fill the valence band, resulting in a semiconducting band gap analogous to 3.

The target synthesis of 6 resulted in large black needles ( c), which could be mounted directly for conductivity measurements ( d).Using gold paste contacts provided a peak conductivity of 11 S cm −1, whereas the carbon paste used in the temperature sweeping measurement ( e) produced a peak conductivity of 2.O, H, N, C and Pt are depicted in red, white, blue, black and grey, respectively.

Trans ptcl2 nh2c6h4co2h 2 a platinum complex forming a nbsp opus

Discussion Unlike the colourful Pt-chain complexes, black compounds are interesting for electronic applications, owing to their potentially high conductivity and strong optical absorption.

Before this, there has only been one Pt-black chain complex reported 39.Quantum chemical calculations were used to elucidate the electronic structure of 6 Platinum Wikipedia.Quantum chemical calculations were used to elucidate the electronic structure of 6.

The unpaired valence electrons are delocalized along the Pt chain (Fig.4a) in agreement with its diamagnetic character evidenced by electron spin resonance spectroscopy The least active complex 4 (t1/2 glutathione: 20 h) degrades fastest, followed by   In this study we report the unexpected degradation by reduced L-glutathione, and   Hogarth, L.; English, M.; Price, L.; Wyllie, R. M.; Pearson, A. D. J.; Hall, A. G.   Chem. Rev. 1999, 99, 2451-2466. 25. Wheate, N. J.; Day, A. I.; Blanch, R. J.;  .4a) in agreement with its diamagnetic character evidenced by electron spin resonance spectroscopy.Furthermore, the homogeneous charge distribution about the Pt nuclei is in agreement with X-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurements (Supplementary Figs 10 and 11d, and Supplementary Table 5) The least active complex 4 (t1/2 glutathione: 20 h) degrades fastest, followed by   In this study we report the unexpected degradation by reduced L-glutathione, and   Hogarth, L.; English, M.; Price, L.; Wyllie, R. M.; Pearson, A. D. J.; Hall, A. G.   Chem. Rev. 1999, 99, 2451-2466. 25. Wheate, N. J.; Day, A. I.; Blanch, R. J.;  .

Furthermore, the homogeneous charge distribution about the Pt nuclei is in agreement with X-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurements (Supplementary Figs 10 and 11d, and Supplementary Table 5).

From the electronic band structure (Fig.4b), we deduce that 6 is metallic with a partially occupied band along the Pt 2 jreference.com/homework/best-website-to-purchase-a-consumer-law-homework-asa-college-standard-at-an-affordable-price.4b), we deduce that 6 is metallic with a partially occupied band along the Pt 2.In the reduced state (that is, electronically similar to compound 3), the addition of two electrons per crystallographic unit cell (that is, one electron per Magnus stack) would increase the Fermi level (dotted line) to fill the valence band, forming a material with a finite band gap.For electrical transport characterization, single crystal conductivity measurements were performed.

The crystallinity and yield of 6, as formed from the sequential crystallization, did not result in large enough crystals to perform such measurements.A revised target synthesis was designed, promoting partial oxidation of 2 to motivate the direct formation and isolation of 6 (yield= ca.The conductivity was measured by mounting a single crystal of 6 (Fig.

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The crystal was carefully attached using gold paste and a champion conductivity of 11 S cm −1 was obtained at room temperature.To investigate the temperature dependence of the electrical transport gold paste could not be used, because it resulted in cracking of crystal with sweeping temperature.Carbon paste results in a decrease in maximum conductivity to 2 Synthesis and Characterization of the Platinum Substituted Keggin nbsp.Carbon paste results in a decrease in maximum conductivity to 2.

2 S cm −1, but the measurements identified a metal-semiconductor transition at ∼210 K (Fig.

Our study has provided several advances in the synthetic chemistry and property control of Pt salts Write me an lab report chemistry British Writing from scratch APA Academic.Our study has provided several advances in the synthetic chemistry and property control of Pt salts.First, we demonstrated that controlled crystallization using the petri-paper procedure provides a cheap and accessible method for the recovery of novel structures.Identification of a blue Pt 2+ compound suggests that the elusive platinblau may not require non-integral oxidation states.We further showed that oxidation of this double salt to Pt 2.

33+ results in a black highly conductive material, as supported by ab initio calculations that revealed a metallic state with delocalized electrons at the Fermi level.This provides an important design principle for developing conductive metal-organic networks, where redox reactions can be used to install conductivity postsynthetically.Our results highlight several important questions including whether we can harness the Pt 2+→Pt 3+ oxidation for catalysis and whether these double salts can provide an alternative to molecular analogues for Pt 2+-based medicines? We anticipate that these findings will stimulate further interest in fundamental platinum chemistry.Methods 2O ( 6, fine black needles), a partially oxidized species.Although this sequential procedure resulted in very low yeids, a refined target synthesis was devised.

Degradation of bidentate coordinated platinum ii based dna nbsp

The improved synthetic strategy involved the following: (i) oxidation by persulfate, (ii) ageing of crystals at higher temperature and (iii) manual separation of well-formed needles from the relatively small crystals deposited simultaneously.02 mmol) in water (12 ml) was heated at 65 °C for 1 h, followed by leaving it at room temperature for 1 h.04 mmol, as solid) was added and the temperature was gradually raised to 65 °C over 1 h without stirring Element Platinum (Pt), Group 10, Atomic Number 78, d-block, Mass 195.084. Sources, facts, uses, scarcity (SRI), podcasts, alchemical symbols, videos and  .04 mmol, as solid) was added and the temperature was gradually raised to 65 °C over 1 h without stirring.

The mixture was further left at 65 °C for 6 h to grow well-formed black metallic needles of 6, crystalographically identical to the fine needles obtained in the other procedure.Finally, the solution was very slowly cooled down to room temperature over 6 h Need to purchase chemistry lab report plagiarism free 67 pages / 18425 words Master's 7 days Standard.Finally, the solution was very slowly cooled down to room temperature over 6 h.As the crystals obtained possessed relatively wide distribution in size, only the needles longer than 180m were collected through tedious manual sieving Need to purchase chemistry lab report plagiarism free 67 pages / 18425 words Master's 7 days Standard.As the crystals obtained possessed relatively wide distribution in size, only the needles longer than 180m were collected through tedious manual sieving.The resulting crystals were then washed with a minimum amount of water and dried in air (yield: ca.

Full characterization details, including single-crystal XRD, Computational approach All calculations were performed within the Kohn–Sham density functional theory framework using periodic boundary conditions, to approximate the infinite salts, starting from the crystallographic unit cells determined from the XRD measurements.The Vienna ab initio simulation package 44, a planewave code (with PAW scalar relativistic core potentials) 45, was employed for all geometry optimizations and electronic calculations.For each system, the lattice vectors and internal atomic positions were relaxed with the semi-local Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof exchange-correlation functional revised for solids 46.

For these calculations, a 500-eV plane-wave cutoff basis set was found to be suitable for convergence of the systems to within 0.

To provide quantitative electronic information, non-local hybrid density functional theory calculations were performed using the HSE06 functional 47, with 25% of the short-range semi-local exchange functional replaced by the exact non-local Hartree–Fock exchange.The X-ray crystallographic coordinates for structures reported in this study have been deposited at the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), under deposition numbers CCDC 1477434-1477437.

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These data can be obtained free of charge from the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre via /data request/cif.

One-dimensional magnus-type platinum double salts.References (Promo) Chemistry World, the magazine of the Royal Society of Chemistry .References (Promo) Chemistry World, the magazine of the Royal Society of Chemistry.

(End promo) Chris Smith Hello - blonde hair, expensive jewellery, a new generation of catalysts and anti cancer drugs plus a mistake that cost the Spanish conquistadors very dear.Have you spotted the connection yet? If not, here's Katherine Haxton.Katherine Haxton Platinum as a metal speaks of prestige, value and power 9 Aug 2008 - ACS Chem.   School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, BRISTOL BS8 1TS, U.K., Department of   Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX, U.K.   We report the synthesis and photophysical properties of a series of   of 4 and 5 and the starting material [Pt(MesBIAN)Cl2] are reported..

Katherine Haxton Platinum as a metal speaks of prestige, value and power.

An album has gone platinum, platinum wedding anniversaries, and highly prized platinum jewellery such as rings and Rolex watches.Platinum is a very different substance to a chemist.Platinum metal is silvery white and does not oxidise, properties that make it highly appealing for jewellery.It is more precious than silver but with prices more volatile than gold.Platinum has broad chemical resistance although the metal may be dissolved in aqua regia, a highly acidic mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids, forming chloroplatinic acid, and has an extremely high melting point in excess of two thousand degrees centigrade.

Spanish conquistadors in the 16 th century viewed platinum as a nuisance, a white metal obtained while panning for gold and difficult to separate from the gold.It was named Platina, a diminutive of Plata, the Spanish word for silver.

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Platina was believed to be unripe gold, and was flung back into the rivers in the hope that it would continue to mature into gold.There is anecdotal evidence of gold mines being abandoned due to platinum contamination.Platinum's properties allowed it to defy identification and classification until the 18 th century Who can do my chemistry lab report no plagiarism College Junior 33 pages / 9075 words single spaced 5 days.

Platinum's properties allowed it to defy identification and classification until the 18 th century.

Its high melting point and broad chemical resistance meant that obtaining a pure sample of the metal was difficult.Platinum's place as a precious metal was first established in the 18 th century by Henrik Sheffer, who succeeded in melting or fusing platinum by adding arsenic.Three chemists, Lavoisier, Seguin and Musnier began working together in the late 18 th century to improve the design of their furnaces to enable platinum to be melted without the need of fluxes such as arsenic [email protected] Telephone: 44 (0) 1865   Isolation of a cis-1, 2-Divinylcyclopropane, J.M. Brown J. Chem. Soc.Chem.   Alicyclic Compounds, J.M. Brown, Annual Reports of the Chemical Society 1968: (publ. 1969)   Platinum-Metal Complexes in Asymmetric Catalysis, J.M.Brown, Platinum Met. Rev, 1987, 31  .Three chemists, Lavoisier, Seguin and Musnier began working together in the late 18 th century to improve the design of their furnaces to enable platinum to be melted without the need of fluxes such as arsenic.The French Chemist Lavoisier wrote for help from Josiah Wedgewood, the founder of Wedgewood pottery, asking for a clay that could be used to manufacture vessels that could withstand the high temperatures needed to melt platinum.Seguin later requested details of which fuel could burn sufficiently hot enough, and for further details on creating the hottest flame possible jreference.com/coursework/where-to-buy-a-biotechnology-coursework-premium-apa-proofreading.

Seguin later requested details of which fuel could burn sufficiently hot enough, and for further details on creating the hottest flame possible.

Lavoisier succeeded in melting platinum using oxygen to enhance the heat of the furnace but it would still be many years before a process could be found to produce commercial quantities.Of course, that was prior to Lavoisier's beheading at the height of the French Revolution in 1794.In 1792 the French Academy of Science obtained a supply of platinum from Marc-Etienne Janety, a master goldsmith in Paris.Janety had managed to develop a means of producing workable platinum using arsenic, and a way to remove the arsenic afterwards with limited success.It is ironic that the very properties that make platinum metal so desirable caused so many difficulties for its discoverers.

One dimensional magnus type platinum double salts nature nbsp

King Louis XVI of France believed that platinum metal was only fit for Kings, due in part to the difficulties in working with pure samples.In 1859, a method for melting up to 15 kilograms of platinum using a furnace lined with lime and oxygen and coal gas as fuel was described by Deville and Debray.The 19th century also saw the development of the first fuel cell using platinum electrodes Need to purchase a chemistry lab report A4 (British/European) Business 20 days American.The 19th century also saw the development of the first fuel cell using platinum electrodes.

Fuel cells produce electricity through electrochemical reactions, often using platinum as non-reactive electrodes, and represent an important area of research into environmentally friendly technologies and cleaner, greener sources of energy today.The very properties of platinum that had made it so hard to work with became valued and platinum was used for lab equipment, and other applications where its broad chemical resistance was required We report here the redox chemistry of 2,3,6,7-tetrahydroxy-. 9,10-dimethyl-9,10-dihydro-9,10-   Homepage: http://www.chem.leeds.ac.uk/People/Halcrow.html. [b]   electronic character of these radicals is near the Robin/Day class II/III border  .

The very properties of platinum that had made it so hard to work with became valued and platinum was used for lab equipment, and other applications where its broad chemical resistance was required.

Johnson Matthey perfected the techniques of separating and refining the platinum group metals and in 1879 Matthey produced a standard metre measure made of a platinum and iridium alloy.Platinum compounds have been well documented, perhaps none more so than cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II), cisplatin.In the early 1960s, Barnett Rosenberg was conducting experiments on bacteria, measuring the effects of electrical currents on cell growth who can help me write a custom building research proposal double spaced 14 days Editing.In the early 1960s, Barnett Rosenberg was conducting experiments on bacteria, measuring the effects of electrical currents on cell growth.coli bacteria were abnormally long during the experiment, something that could not be attributed to the electric current.

Further investigation revealed a number of platinum compounds were being formed due to reaction of the buffer and platinum electrode and subsequent characterization of these compounds isolated cisplatin.Cisplatin was found to inhibit cell division thus causing the elongation of the bacteria, and was tested in mice for anticancer properties.This was at the height of a push for new cures for cancer, and screening programs for novel chemotherapy agents.Initial experiments failed due to too high a dose but finally evidence was obtained for cisplatin.

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Cisplatin today is widely used to treat epithelial malignancies with outstanding results in the treatment of testicular cancers.

Cisplatin is a remarkable tale of serendipity in science research and a wonderful example of how major breakthroughs cannot be commanded.The success of cisplatin has spawned a search for new platinum anticancer compounds that has produced oxaliplatin and carboplatin to date with several other compounds at various stages of development compounds, for example cisplatin and carboplatin have medical use as   Table 2 Physical and chemical properties of platinum and relevant platinum compounds.   The platinum salts covered in this report which have been classified and labelled in the   average during 90 days inhalation in the lung was bioavailable..The success of cisplatin has spawned a search for new platinum anticancer compounds that has produced oxaliplatin and carboplatin to date with several other compounds at various stages of development.

Platinum's chemical legacy goes far beyond medicinal chemistry.In the last 50 years platinum catalysts have become widespread in industry, used to enhance the octane number of gasoline, and manufacturing primary feedstocks for the plastics industry.Platinum plays a significant role in many of the manufactured goods we rely on today.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded, in 2007, to Gerhard Ertl who's work included a study of oxidation of carbon monoxide on platinum surfaces.Platinum group metals are also components of many autocatalysts, converting car exhaust gases in to less harmful substance.And our fascination with platinum as a rare and robust metal continues.The term 'platinum blond' came about in the 1930's when actresses with platinum jewellery were the stars of newly invented talking pictures.The sinking of the Titanic inspired public displays of mourning, including a new fashion for black and white jewellery.

Platinum metal became popular in such pieces due to its pale colour.More recently it was the metal of choice for the wedding bands of Elvis and Priscilla Presley, and remains synonymous with quality and wealth today.

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Chris Smith Amazing to think that the Spanish colonists were throwing the stuff away.That was Keele University's Katherine Haxton with the story of Platinum.Next week it's time to relive your schooldays Help me do a lab report chemistry Writing from scratch British Premium US Letter Size.

Next week it's time to relive your schooldays.

Brian Clegg If there were a competition for the chemical element mostly likely to generate schoolboy howlers, the winner would be germanium.It's inevitable that the substance with atomic number 32 is quite often described as a flowering plant with the common name cranesbill.Just one letter differentiates the flower geranium from the element germanium - an easy enough mistake.You may like to say it with flowers and give someone a gift of a geranium - but you're more likely to communicate down a modern fibre optic phone line, and then it's germanium all the way.Chris Smith Indeed, and you can download Brian Clegg's tale of germanium, probably via a fibre optic too, because he'll be here next week for Chemistry in its Element jreference.com/homework/best-website-to-write-international-relations-homework-us-letter-size-british-chicago-turabian-original.

Chris Smith Indeed, and you can download Brian Clegg's tale of germanium, probably via a fibre optic too, because he'll be here next week for Chemistry in its Element.

I'm Chris Smith, thank you for listening and goodbye.(Promo) Chemistry in its element is brought to you by the Royal Society of Chemistry and produced by.There's more information and other episodes of Chemistry in its element on our website at/elements.