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Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences Need to order a essay climate change 5 days double spaced ASA US Letter Size.Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.

This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed.

, 2 General Format Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in APA be followed by authors preparing a scientific research paper for a journal, monograph,   get a feel for the typical subject areas and scope of each journal.   results of numerical experiments on climate change are suitable for JCLI, but   Footnotes should appear in standard format, double spaced, at the bottom of the.., 2 General Format Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in APA.To see a side-by-side comparison of the three most widely used citation styles, including a chart of all APA citation guidelines, see the Citation Style Chart.General APA Guidelines Your essay should be typed and double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.You should use a clear font that is highly readable.

Include a running head") at the top of every page.To create a page header/running head, insert page numbers flush right.Then type "TITLE OF YOUR PAPER" in the header flush left using all capital letters.

The running head is a shortened version of your paper's title and cannot exceed 50 characters including spacing and punctuation.Major Paper Sections title of the paper, the author's name, and the institutional affiliation.Include the page header (described above) flush left with the page number flush right at the top of the page.Please note that on the title page, your page header/running head should look like this: Running head: TITLE OF YOUR PAPER Pages after the title page should have a running head that looks like this: TITLE OF YOUR PAPER After consulting with publication specialists at the APA, OWL staff learned that the APA 6th edition, first printing sample papers have incorrect examples of running heads on pages after the title page.This link will take you to the APA site where you can find a complete list of all the errors in the APA's 6th edition style guide.

Type your title in upper and lowercase letters centered in the upper half of the page.APA recommends that your title be no more than 12 words in length and that it should not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose.Your title may take up one or two lines.All text on the title page, and throughout your paper, should be double-spaced.Beneath the title, type the author's name: first name, middle initial(s), and last name.

Beneath the author's name, type the institutional affiliation, which should indicate the location where the author(s) conducted the research.Image Caption: APA Title Page Abstract Begin a new page.Your abstract page should already include the page header (described above).

On the first line of the abstract page, center the word “Abstract” (no bold, formatting, italics, underlining, or quotation marks).Beginning with the next line, write a concise summary of the key points of your research.) Your abstract should contain at least your research topic, research questions, participants, methods, results, data analysis, and conclusions.You may also include possible implications of your research and future work you see connected with your findings.

Your abstract should be a single paragraph, double-spaced.Your abstract should be between 150 and 250 words.You may also want to list keywords from your paper in your abstract.To do this, indent as you would if you were starting a new paragraph, type Keywords: (italicized), and then list your keywords.Listing your keywords will help researchers find your work in databases.

Image Caption: APA Abstract Page Please see our Sample APA Paper resource to see an example of an APA paper.You may also visit our Additional Resources page for more examples of APA papers.How to Cite the Purdue OWL in APA Individual Resources Contributors' names and the last edited date can be found in the orange boxes at the top of every page on the OWL.Retrieved from Web address for OWL resourceAngeli, E.Retrieved from /owl/resource/560/01/ Contributors: Joshua M.

Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed.

, 2 In-Text Citations: The Basics Reference citations in text are covered on pages 169-179 of the Publication Manual.

What follows are some general guidelines for referring to the works of others in your essay.Note: APA style requires authors to use the past tense or present perfect tense when using signal phrases to describe earlier research, for example, Jones (1998) found or Jones (1998) APA citation basics When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation.This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Jones, 1998), and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text reference.All sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

In-text citation capitalization, quotes, and italics/underlining Always capitalize proper nouns, including author names and initials: D.If you refer to the title of a source within your paper, capitalize all words that are four letters long or greater within the title of a source: Permanence and Change.Exceptions apply to short words that are verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs: Writing New Media, ( Writing new media.Capitalize the first word after a dash or colon: "Defining Film Rhetoric: The Case of Hitchcock's Vertigo." Italicize the titles of longer works such as books, edited collections, movies, television series, documentaries, or albums: The Closing of the American Mind; The Wizard of Oz; Friends.Put quotation marks around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles, articles from edited collections, television series episodes, and song titles: "Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds;" "The One Where Chandler Can't Cry." Short quotations If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and page number for the reference (preceded by "p.Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p.Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p.199); what implications does this have for teachers? If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.

She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p.199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.Long quotations Place direct quotations that are 40 words or longer in a free-standing block of typewritten lines and omit quotation marks.Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph.Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin.The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.Jones's (1998) study found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources.

 This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help.199) Summary or paraphrase If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference, but APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number (although it is not required.) According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p.

Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.

For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed., 2 In-Text Citations: Author/Authors APA style has a series of important rules on using author names as part of the author-date system.There are additional rules for citing indirect sources, electronic sources, and sources without page numbers.Citing an Author or Authors A Work by Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses each time you cite the work.Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in parentheses.

Research by Wegener and Petty (1994) supports.(Wegener & Petty, 1994) A Work by Three to Five Authors: List all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses the first time you cite the source. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in parentheses.(Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 1993) In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al.

" in the signal phrase or in parentheses.

, 1993) et should not be followed by a period.Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al., 2001) Unknown Author: If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses.Titles of books and reports are italicized; titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks.A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers ("Using APA," 2001).

Note: In the rare case the "Anonymous" is used for the author, treat it as the author's name (Anonymous, 2001).In the reference list, use the name Anonymous as the author.Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source.According to the American Psychological Association (2000),.If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations.

First citation: (Mothers Against Drunk Driving MADD , 2000) Second citation: (MADD, 2000) Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses: When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them the same way they appear in the reference list (viz., alphabetically), separated by a semi-colon.Johnson, 1998) Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year to order the entries in the reference list.

Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation.Research by Berndt (1981a) illustrated that.Introductions, Prefaces, Forewords, and Afterwords: When citing an Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword in-text, cite the appropriate author and year as usual.(Funk & Kolln, 1992) Personal Communication: For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicator's name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication.Do not include personal communication in the reference list.

Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication, November 3, 2002).

Citing Indirect Sources If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase.List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses.Note: When citing material in parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as above.Also, try to locate the original material and cite the original source.Electronic Sources If possible, cite an electronic document the same as any other document by using the author-date style.Unknown Author and Unknown Date: If no author or date is given, use the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses and use the abbreviation "n.

Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutoring ("Tutoring and APA," n.Sources Without Page Numbers When an electronic source lacks page numbers, you should try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited.When an electronic document has numbered paragraphs, use the abbreviation "para." followed by the paragraph number (Hall, 2001, para.If the paragraphs are not numbered and the document includes headings, provide the appropriate heading and specify the paragraph under that heading.

Note: Never use the page numbers of webpages you print out; different computers print webpages with different pagination.

Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed.

, 2 Footnotes and Endnotes APA does not recommend the use of footnotes and endnotes because they are often expensive for publishers to reproduce.However, if explanatory notes still prove necessary to your document, APA details the use of two types of footnotes: content and copyright.When using either type of footnote, insert a number formatted in superscript following almost any punctuation mark.Footnote numbers should not follow dashes ( — ), and if they appear in a sentence in parentheses, the footnote number should be inserted within the parentheses.Scientists examined—over several years 1—the fossilized remains of the wooly-wooly yak.

2 (These have now been transferred to the Chauan Museum.Footnotes may also appear on the final page of your document (usually this is after the References page).Center the word “Footnotes” at the top of the page.Indent five spaces on the first line of each footnote.

Then, follow normal paragraph spacing rules.1 While the method of examination for the wooly-wooly yak provides important insights to this research, this document does not focus on this particular species.Content Notes Content notes provide supplemental information to your readers.When providing content notes, be brief and focus on only one subject.

Try to limit your comments to one small paragraph.Content notes can also point readers to information that is available in more detail elsewhere.1 See Blackmur (1995), especially chapters 3 and 4, for an insightful analysis of this extraordinary animal.Copyright Permission Notes If you quote more than 500 words of published material or think you may be in violation of “Fair Use” copyright laws, you must get the formal permission of the author(s).All other sources simply appear in the reference list.

Follow the same formatting rules as with content notes for noting copyright permissions.Then attach a copy of the permission letter to the document.If you are reproducing a graphic, chart, or table, from some other source, you must provide a special note at the bottom of the item that includes copyright information.You should also submit written permission along with your work.Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed., 2 Reference List: Basic Rules Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper.

It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper.Each source you cite in the paper must appear in your reference list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text.Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay; label this page "References" centered at the top of the page (do NOT bold, underline, or use quotation marks for the title).All text should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay.

Basic Rules All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin.

Authors' names are inverted (last name first); give the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work for up to and including seven authors.If the work has more than seven authors, list the first six authors and then use ellipses after the sixth author's name.After the ellipses, list the last author's name of the work.Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work.

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For multiple articles by the same author, or authors listed in the same order, list the entries in chronological order, from earliest to most recent.Maintain the punctuation and capitalization that is used by the journal in its title.For example: Knowledge Management Research and Practice We don't know precisely how climate change will alter the planet, but two things are   Companies that get their strategy right will find vast opportunities to both profit   climate policies will be affected by stakeholder expectations and standards for   While property insurers' own carbon emissions may be low, for example,  .For example: Knowledge Management Research and Practice.

Capitalize all major words in journal titles.

When referring to books, chapters, articles, or webpages, capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns.Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals.Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections.Please note: While the APA manual provides many examples of how to cite common types of sources, it does not provide rules on how to cite all types of sources.Therefore, if you have a source that APA does not include, APA suggests that you find the example that is most similar to your source and use that format.

For more information, see page 193 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6 th ed.Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.

This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed., 2 Reference List: Author/Authors The following rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors apply to all APA-style references in your reference list, regardless of the type of work (book, article, electronic resource, etc.Friendship quality and social development.Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 7-10.Two Authors List by their last names and initials.

Mood management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 1034-1048.Three to Seven Authors List by last names and initials; commas separate author names, while the last author name is preceded again by ampersand.There's more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1190-1204.More Than Seven Authors List by last names and initials; commas separate author names.After the sixth author's name, use an ellipses in place of the author names.There should be no more than seven names.Web site usability for the blind and low-vision user.

Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.NOTE: When your essay includes parenthetical citations of sources with no author named, use a shortened version of the source's title instead of an author's name.Use quotation marks and italics as appropriate.For example, parenthetical citations of the source above would appear as follows: ( Merriam-Webster's, 1993).Two or More Works by the Same Author Use the author's name for all entries and list the entries by the year (earliest comes first).When an author appears both as a sole author and, in another citation, as the first author of a group, list the one-author entries first.Friends' influence on students' adjustment to school.

References that have the same first author and different second and/or third authors are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the second author, or the last name of the third if the first and second authors are the same.Flexible corrections of juror judgments: Implications for jury instructions.Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 6, 629-654.Effects of mood on high elaboration attitude change: The mediating role of likelihood judgments.European Journal of Social Psychology, 24, 25-43.Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year If you are using more than one reference by the same author (or the same group of authors listed in the same order) published in the same year, organize them in the reference list alphabetically by the title of the article or chapter.Then assign letter suffixes to the year.

Refer to these sources in your essay as they appear in your reference list, e.Age changes and changes over time in prosocial intentions and behavior between friends.Introductions, Prefaces, Forewords, and Afterwords Cite the publishing information about a book as usual, but cite Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword (whatever title is applicable) as the chapter of the book.

Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed.

, 2 Basic Form APA style dictates that authors are named last name followed by initials; publication year goes between parentheses, followed by a period.The title of the article is in sentence-case, meaning only the first word and proper nouns in the title are capitalized.The periodical title is run in title case, and is followed by the volume number which, with the title, is also italicized.If a DOI has been assigned to the article that you are using, you should include this after the page numbers for the article.

If no DOI has been assigned and you are accessing the periodical online, use the URL of the website from which you are retrieving the periodical.

Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages./ /yyyyyArticle in Journal Paginated by Volume Journals that are paginated by volume begin with page one in issue one, and continue numbering issue two where issue one ended, etc.

Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.

Article in Journal Paginated by Issue Journals paginated by issue begin with page one every issue; therefore, the issue number gets indicated in parentheses after the volume.The parentheses and issue number are not italicized or underlined.Article in a Newspaper Unlike other periodicals, p.precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style.

Calls made to strengthen state energy policies.Letter to the Editor Scientific American, 287(2), 12.Review The self-knower: A hero under control, by R.Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.

This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.

For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed., 2 Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle.Note: For "Location," you should always list the city and the state using the two letter postal abbreviation without periods (New York, NY).APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication.

Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Edited Book, No Author Consequences of growing up poor.Edited Book with an Author or Authors Plath, S.A philosophical essay on probabilities.(Original work published 1814) Note: When you cite a republished work, like the one above, in your text, it should appear with both dates: Laplace (1814/1951).Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Article or Chapter in an Edited Book Author, A.Note: When you list the pages of the chapter or essay in parentheses after the book title, use "pp.This abbreviation, however, does not appear before the page numbers in periodical references, except for newspapers.Men's and women's gender role journeys: A metaphor for healing, transition, and transformation.), Gender issues across the life cycle (pp.Multivolume Work Dictionary of the history of ideas (Vols.Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.

Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed., 2 An Entry in an Encyclopedia Bergmann, P.Work Discussed in a Secondary Source List the source the work was discussed in: Coltheart, M.Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and parallel-distributed-processing approaches.NOTE: Give the secondary source in the references list; in the text, name the original work, and give a citation for the secondary source.

For example, if Seidenberg and McClelland's work is cited in Coltheart et al.and you did not read the original work, list the Coltheart et al.In the text, use the following citation: In Seidenberg and McClelland's study (as cited in Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993), .Dissertation Abstract Dissertation Abstracts International, 62, 7741A.

Dissertation, Published Government Document National Institute of Mental Health.Clinical training in serious mental illness (DHHS Publication No.Report From a Private Organization American Psychiatric Association.Conference Proceedings The First International Conference on Computer Support for Collaborative Learning.

Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.

For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed., 2 Reference List: Electronic Sources (Web Publications) Please note: There are no spaces used with brackets in APA.When possible, include the year, month, and date in references.If the month and date are not available, use the year of publication.Please note, too, that the OWL still includes information about print sources and databases for those still working with these sources.

Article From an Online Periodical Online articles follow the same guidelines for printed articles.Include all information the online host makes available, including an issue number in parentheses.Title of Online Periodical, volume number(issue number if available).Retrieved from /full/url/ A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 149.

Retrieved from /articles/writeliving Online Scholarly Journal Article: Citing DOIs Please note: In August of 2011 the formatting recommendations for DOIs changed.DOIs are now rendered as an alpha-numeric string which acts as an active link.According to The APA Style Guide to Electronic References, 6 th edition, you should use the DOI format which the article appears with.So, if it is using the older numeric string, use that as the DOI.If, however, it is presented as the newer alpha-numeric string, use that as the DOI.

The Purdue OWL maintains examples of citations using both DOI styles.Because online materials can potentially change URLs, APA recommends providing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), when it is available, as opposed to the URL.DOIs are an attempt to provide stable, long-lasting links for online articles.They are unique to their documents and consist of a long alphanumeric code.Many-but not all-publishers will provide an article's DOI on the first page of the document.

Note that some online bibliographies provide an article's DOI but may "hide" the code under a button which may read "Article" or may be an abbreviation of a vendor's name like "CrossRef" or "PubMed." This button will usually lead the user to the full article which will include the DOI.Find DOI's from print publications or ones that go to dead links with 's "DOI Resolver," which is displayed in a central location on their home page.Article From an Online Periodical with DOI Assigned Author, A.Title of Journal, volume number, page range.

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European Journal of Marketing, 41, 1245-1283.

Playing with technology: Mother-toddler interaction scores lower during play with electronic toys.Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 33(5), 211-218.005 Article From an Online Periodical with no DOI Assigned Online scholarly journal articles without a DOI require the URL of the journal home page.Remember that one goal of citations is to provide your readers with enough information to find the article; providing the journal home page aids readers in this process.A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights.

Retrieved from /jbe/ Article from a Database Please note: APA states that including database information in citations is not necessary because databases change over time (p.However, the OWL still includes information about databases for those users who need database information.When referencing a print article obtained from an online database (such as a database in the library), provide appropriate print citation information (formatted just like a "normal" print citation would be for that type of work).

By providing this information, you allow people to retrieve the print version if they do not have access to the database from which you retrieved the article.You can also include the item number or accession number or database URL at the end, but the APA manual says that this is not required.If you are citing a database article that is available in other places, such as a journal or magazine, include the homepage's URL.You may have to do a web search of the article's title, author, etc.For articles that are easily located, do not provide database information.If the article is difficult to locate, then you can provide database information.Only use retrieval dates if the source could change, such as Wikis.For more about citing articles retrieved from electronic databases, see pages 187-192 of the Publication Manual.Title of Journal, volume number, page range.Journal of Abnormal Eating, 8(3), 120-125.

Retrieved from /full/url/ Abstract If you only cite an abstract but the full text of the article is also available, cite the online abstract as any other online citations, adding " Abstract " after the article or source name.However, if the full text is not available, you may use an abstract that is available through an abstracts database as a secondary source.How well do young offenders with Asperger Syndrome cope in custody?: Two prison case studies Abstract .

British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36(1), 54-58.A world apart? Bridging the gap between theory and applied social gerontology.Abstract retrieved from Abstracts in Social Gerontology database.50360869) Newspaper Article Title of Newspaper.

Retrieved from /full/url/ The New York Times.Retrieved from/2008/05/06/psychiatry-handbook-linked-to-drug-industry/? r=0 Electronic Books Electronic books may include books found on personal websites, databases, or even in audio form.Use the following format if the book you are using is only provided in a digital format or is difficult to find in print.If the work is not directly available online or must be purchased, use "Available from," rather than "Retrieved from," and point readers to where they can find it.

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For books available in print form and electronic form, include the publish date in parentheses after the author's name.

For references to e-book editions, be sure to include the type and version of e-book you are referencing (e.If DOIs are available, provide them at the end of the reference Climate Business Business Climate Harvard Business Review.If DOIs are available, provide them at the end of the reference.

Taytay’s tales: Traditional Pueblo Indian tales.

Retrieved from /women/dehuff/taytay/ Davis, J.Kindle Books To cite Kindle (or other e-book formats) you must include the following information: The author, date of publication, title, e-book version, and either the Digital Object Identifer (DOI) number, or the place where you downloaded the book climate change and the important role that cities can play in addressing it. This   example that Chicago has set and that is being replicated by cities   doubled. Because of these increases in heat-trapping gases, average temperatures   Individuals everywhere are making climate-friendly buying choices,   green space..

Kindle Books To cite Kindle (or other e-book formats) you must include the following information: The author, date of publication, title, e-book version, and either the Digital Object Identifer (DOI) number, or the place where you downloaded the book.

Please note that the DOI/place of download is used in-place of publisher information.Chapter/Section of a Web Document or Online Book Chapter Author, A order a custom consumer sciences dissertation 125 pages / 34375 words ASA Rewriting.Chapter/Section of a Web Document or Online Book Chapter Author, A.In Title of book or larger document (chapter or section number).Retrieved from /full/url/ Engelshcall, R.Module mod rewrite: URL Rewriting Engine.NOTE: Use a chapter or section identifier and provide a URL that links directly to the chapter section, not the home page of the website.Online Book Reviews Cite the information as you normally would for the work you are quoting.(The first example below is from a newspaper article; the second is from a scholarly journal.) In brackets, write "Review of the book" and give the title of the reviewed work.Provide the web address after the words "Retrieved from," if the review is freely available to anyone.

If the review comes from a subscription service or database, write "Available from" and provide the information where the review can be purchased.Natural women Review of the book Girls like us .New millennial Joyce Review of the books Twenty-first Joyce, Joyce's critics: Transitions in reading and culture, and Joyce's messianism: Dante, negative existence, and the messianic self .Modern Fiction Studies, 50(1), 163-173.Available from Project MUSE website: /journals/modern fiction studies/toc/ Dissertation/Thesis from a Database Biswas, S.Dopamine D3 receptor: A neuroprotective treatment target in Parkinson's disease.Retrieved from ProQuest Digital Dissertations.(AAT 3295214) Online Encyclopedias and Dictionaries Often encyclopedias and dictionaries do not provide bylines (authors' names).When no byline is present, move the entry name to the front of the citation.Provide publication dates if present or specify (n.

In Online Bibliographies and Annotated Bibliographies J rgens, R.HIV/AIDS and HCV in Prisons: A Select Annotated Bibliography.Retrieved from /ahc-asc/alt formats/hpb-dgps/pdf/intactiv/hiv-vih-aids-sida-prison-carceral e.

pdf Data Sets Point readers to raw data by providing a web address (use "Retrieved from") or a general place that houses data sets on the site (use "Available from").United States Department of Housing and Urban Development.Retrieved from /Datasets/IL/IL08/in Graphic Data (e.

Interactive Maps and Other Graphic Representations of Data) Give the name of the researching organization followed by the date.In brackets, provide a brief explanation of what type of data is there and in what form it appears.Finally, provide the project name and retrieval information.

Graph illustration the SORCE Spectral Plot May 8, 2008 .Solar Spectral Data Access from the SIM, SOLSTICE, and XPS Instruments.Retrieved from /cgi-bin/ion-p?page=input data for Qualitative Data and Online Interviews If an interview is not retrievable in audio or print form, cite the interview only in the text (not in the reference list) and provide the month, day, and year in the text.If an audio file or transcript is available online, use the following model, specifying the medium in brackets (e.

Interview transcript, Interview audio file ): Butler, C.Retrieved from Johnson Space Center Oral Histories Project website: /history/oral histories/oral Online Lecture Notes and Presentation Slides When citing online lecture notes, be sure to provide the file format in brackets after the lecture title (e.Duality in consumer theory PDF document .Retrieved from Lecture Notes Online Website: /classes/econ501/Hallam/ Roberts, K.Federal regulations of chemicals in the environment PowerPoint slides .

Retrieved from /ppt/40hrenv/ Nonperiodical Web Document or Report List as much of the following information as possible (you sometimes have to hunt around to find the information; don't be lazy.If there is a page like / , and doesn't have the information you're looking for, move up the URL to /): Author, A.Retrieved from /owl/resource/560/01/ NOTE: When an Internet document is more than one web page, provide a URL that links to the home page or entry page for the document.Also, if there isn't a date available for the document use (n.To cite a Computer Software/Downloaded Software Do not cite standard office software (e.Provide references only for specialized software.Software that is downloaded from a web site should provide the software’s version and year when available.

OTSoft: Optimality Theory Software (Version 2.Available from /people/hayes/otsoft/ E-mail E-mails are not included in the list of references, though you parenthetically cite them in your main text: (E.Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).Online Forum or Discussion Board Posting Include the title of the message, and the URL of the newsgroup or discussion board.Please note that titles for items in online communities (e.blogs, newsgroups, forums) are not italicized.If the author's name is not available, provide the screen name.Place identifiers like post or message numbers, if available, in brackets.If available, provide the URL where the message is archived (e.New inventions in the cyberworld of toylandia Msg 25 .Message posted to /forum/messages/ Blog (Weblog) and Video Blog Post Include the title of the message and the URL.Please note that titles for items in online communities (e.blogs, newsgroups, forums) are not italicized.If the author’s name is not available, provide the screen name.When the self emerges: Is that me in the mirror? web log comment .

Retrieved from /the1sttransportWikis Please note that the APA Style Guide to Electronic References warns writers that wikis (like Wikipedia, for example) are collaborative projects that cannot guarantee the verifiability or expertise of their entries.Retrieved April 29, 2011 from the OLPC Wiki: .org/go/OLPC Peru/Arahuay Audio Podcast For all podcasts, provide as much information as possible; not all of the following information will be available.Possible addition identifiers may include Producer, Director, etc.Podcast retrieved from / Video Podcasts For all podcasts, provide as much information as possible; not all of the following information will be available.Possible addition identifiers may include Producer, Director, etc.

The community college classroom Episode 7 .

Podcast retrieved from For more help with citing electronic sources, please use these links: Title of motion picture Motion picture .Country of origin: Studio or distributor.Note: If a movie or video tape is not available in wide distribution, add the following to your citation after the country of origin: (Available from Distributor name, full address and zip code).A Motion Picture or Video Tape with International or National Availability Smith, J.Really big disaster movie Motion picture .

A Motion Picture or Video Tape with Limited Availability Harris, M.Writing labs: A history Motion picture .(Available from Purdue University Pictures, 500 Oval Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907) Television Broadcast or Series Episode Writer, W.Title of broadcast Television broadcast or Television series .City, state of origin: Studio or distributor.Single Episode of a Television Series Writer, W.Title of episode Television series episode .City, state of origin: Studio or distributor.The rising angel and the falling ape Television series episode .Dude (Producer), Creatures and monsters.Television Broadcast The nightly news hour Television broadcast .New York, NY: Central Broadcasting Service.

A Television Series Exciting action show Television series .

Hollywood, CA: American Broadcasting Company.Title of song Recorded by artist if different from song writer .

On Title of album Medium of recording .(Recording date if different from copyright date).Someone saved my life tonight Recorded by Elton John .On Captain fantastic and the brown dirt cowboy CD .For more about citing audiovisual media, see pages 209-210 of the APA Publication Manual 6th Edition, second printing.Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed., 2 Additional Resources It's always best to consult the Publication Manual first for any APA question.

If you are using APA style for a class assignment, it's a good idea to consult your professor, advisor, TA, or other campus resources for help with using APA style—they're the ones who can tell you how the style should apply in your particular case.Print Resources Here are some print resources for using APA style.Click The Purdue OWL does not make any profit from nor does it endorse these agencies; links are merely offered for information.Most of these books are probably available in your local library.From the American Psychological Association: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition) (ISBN 13: 978-1-4338-0561-5; ISBN 10: 1-4338-0561-8) Mastering APA Style: Instructor's Resource Guide (ISBN: 1557988900) Mastering APA Style: Student's Workbook and Training Guide (ISBN: 143380557X) Presenting Your Findings: A Practical Guide for Creating Tables (ISBN: 143380705X) Displaying Your Findings: A Practical Guide for Creating Figures, Posters, and Presentations (ISBN: 1433807076X) From other publishers: Writing With Style: APA Style for Social Work (ISBN: 084003198X) Online Resources from the APA Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.

This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed., 2 Types of APA Papers There are two common types of papers written in fields using APA Style: the literature review and the experimental report.Each has unique requirements concerning the sections that must be included in the paper.Literature review A literature review is a critical summary of what the scientific literature says about your specific topic or question.

Often student research in APA fields falls into this category.Your professor might ask you to write this kind of paper to demonstrate your familiarity with work in the field pertinent to the research you hope to conduct.A literature review typically contains the following sections: Title page List of references Some instructors may also want you to write an abstract for a literature review, so be sure to check with them when given an assignment.Also, the length of a literature review and the required number of sources will vary based on course and instructor preferences.NOTE: A literature review and an annotated bibliography are not synonymous.

If you are asked to write an annotated bibliography, you should consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for the APA Format for Annotated Bibliographies.Experimental report In many of the social sciences, you will be asked to design and conduct your own experimental research.If so, you will need to write up your paper using a structure that is more complex than that used for just a literature review.We have a complete resource devoted to writing an experimental report in the field of psychology here.This structure follows the scientific method, but it also makes your paper easier to follow by providing those familiar cues that help your reader efficiently scan your information for: Why the topic is important (covered in your introduction) What the problem is (also covered in your introduction) What you did to try to solve the problem (covered in your methods section) What you found (covered in your results section) What you think your findings mean (covered in your discussion section) Thus an experimental report typically includes the following sections.

Title page Tables and/or figures (if necessary) Make sure to check the guidelines for your assignment or any guidelines that have been given to you by an editor of a journal before you submit a manuscript containing the sections listed above.As with the literature review, the length of this report may vary by course or by journal, but most often it will be determined by the scope of the research conducted.Other papers If you are writing a paper that fits neither of these categories, follow the guidelines about General Format, consult your instructor, or look up advice in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.When submitting a manuscript to a journal, make sure you follow the guidelines described in the submission policies of that publication, and include as many sections as you think are applicable to presenting your material.Remember to keep your audience in mind as you are making this decision.

If certain information is particularly pertinent for conveying your research, then ensure that there is a section of your paper that adequately addresses that information.Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.

This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.

For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed., 2 APA Stylistics: Avoiding Bias Researchers who use APA often work with a variety of populations, some of whom tend to be stereotyped by the use of labels and other biased forms of language.Therefore, APA offers specific recommendations for eliminating bias in language concerning race, disability, and sexuality.Make Adjustments to Labels Although you should avoid labeling whenever possible, it is sometimes difficult to accurately account for the identity of your research population or individual participants without using language that can be read as biased.Making adjustments in how you use identifiers and other linguistic categories can improve the clarity of your writing and minimize the likelihood of offending your readers.

In general, you should call people what they prefer to be called, especially when dealing with race and ethnicity.But sometimes the common conventions of language inadvertently contain biases towards certain populations - e.using "normal" in contrast to someone identified as "disabled." Therefore, you should be aware of how your choice of terminology may come across to your reader, particularly if they identify with the population in question.

You can find an in-depth discussion of this issue and specific recommendations for how to appropriately represent people in your text on the APA website on the following pages: Avoid Gendered Pronouns While you should always be clear about the sex identity of your participants (if you conducted an experiment), so that gender differences are obvious, you should not use gender terms when they aren't necessary.In other words, you should not use "he," "his" or "men" as generic terms applying to both sexes.APA does not recommend replacing "he" with "he or she," "she or he," "he/she," "(s)he," "s/he," or alternating between "he" and "she" because these substitutions are awkward and can distract the reader from the point you are trying to make.The pronouns "he" or "she" inevitably cause the reader to think of only that gender, which may not be what you intend.To avoid the bias of using gendered pronouns: Rephrase the sentence Replace the pronoun with an article - instead of "his," use "the" Drop the pronoun - many sentences sound fine if you just omit the troublesome "his" from the sentence Replace the pronoun with a noun such as "person," "individual," "child," "researcher," etc.

For more about addressing gender in academic writing, visit the OWL's resource on use.Find Alternative Descriptors To avoid unintentional biases in your language, look to the parameters of your research itself.When writing up an experimental report, describe your participants by the measures you used to classify them in the experiment, as long as the labels are not offensive.Example: If you had people take a test measuring their reaction times and you were interested in looking at the differences between people who had fast reaction times and those with slow reaction times, you could call the first group the "fast reaction time group" and the second the "slow reaction time group." Also, use adjectives to serve as descriptors rather than labels.

When you use terms such as "the elderly" or "the amnesiacs," the people lose their individuality.One way to avoid this is to insert an adjective (e.Another way is to mention the person first and follow this with a descriptive phrase (e.

, "people diagnosed with amnesia"), although it can be cumbersome to keep repeating phrases like this.Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.

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This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed., 2 APA Stylistics: Basics Writing in APA is more than simply learning the formula for citations or following a certain page layout NATURE AND CULTURE INFORMATION FOR nbsp Berghahn Journals., 2 APA Stylistics: Basics Writing in APA is more than simply learning the formula for citations or following a certain page layout.

APA also includes the stylistics of your writing, from point of view to word choice.Point of View and Voice When writing in APA Style, you can use the first person point of view when discussing your research steps ("I studiedNeed to get a college climate change essay Academic 5 pages / 1375 words Formatting British.

Point of View and Voice When writing in APA Style, you can use the first person point of view when discussing your research steps ("I studied .

") and when referring to yourself and your co-authors ("We examined the literature .Use first person to discuss research steps rather than anthropomorphising the work.For example, a study cannot "control" or "interpret"; you and your co-authors, however, can.In general, you should foreground the research and not the researchers ("The results indicate .

Avoid using the editorial "we"; if you use "we" in your writing, be sure that "we" refers to you and your fellow researchers.It is a common misconception that foregrounding the research requires using the passive voice ("Experiments have been conducted .Rather, you would use pronouns in place of "experiments" ("We conducted experiments .APA Style encourages using the active voice ("We interpreted the results .The active voice is particularly important in experimental reports, where the subject performing the action should be clearly identified (e.

Consult the OWL handout for more on the distinction between passive and active voice.Clarity and Conciseness Clarity and conciseness in writing are important when conveying research in APA Style.You don't want to misrepresent the details of a study or confuse your readers with wordiness or unnecessarily complex sentences.For clarity, be specific rather than vague in descriptions and explanations.Unpack details accurately to provide adequate information to your readers so they can follow the development of your study.

Example: "It was predicted that marital conflict would predict behavior problems in school-aged children." To clarify this vague hypothesis, use parallel structure to outline specific ideas: "The first hypothesis stated that marital conflict would predict behavior problems in school-aged children.The second hypothesis stated that the effect would be stronger for girls than for boys.The third hypothesis stated that older girls would be more affected by marital conflict than younger girls." To be more concise, particularly in introductory material or abstracts, you should pare out unnecessary words and condense information when you can (see the OWL handout on Conciseness in academic writing for suggestions).

Example: The above list of hypotheses might be rephrased concisely as: "The authors wanted to investigate whether marital conflict would predict behavior problems in children and they wanted to know if the effect was greater for girls than for boys, particularly when they examined two different age groups of girls." Balancing the need for clarity, which can require unpacking information, and the need for conciseness, which requires condensing information, is a challenge.Study published articles and reports in your field for examples of how to achieve this balance.Word Choice You should even be careful in selecting certain words or terms.Within the social sciences, commonly used words take on different meanings and can have a significant effect on how your readers interpret your reported findings or claims.

To increase clarity, avoid bias, and control how your readers will receive your information, you should make certain substitutions: Use terms like "participants" or "respondents" (rather than "subjects") to indicate how individuals were involved in your research Use terms like "children" or "community members" to provide more detail about who was participating in the study Use phrases like "The evidence suggests ." rather than referring to "proof" or "proves" because no single study can prove a theory or hypothesis As with the other stylistic suggestions here, you should study the discourse of your field to see what terminology is most often used.Avoiding Poetic Language Writing papers in APA Style is unlike writing in more creative or literary styles that draw on poetic expressions and figurative language.Such linguistic devices can detract from conveying your information clearly and may come across to readers as forced when it is inappropriately used to explain an issue or your findings.

Therefore, you should: minimize the amount of figurative language used in an APA paper, such as metaphors and analogies unless they are helpful in conveying a complex idea avoid rhyming schemes, alliteration, or other poetic devices typically found in verse use simple, descriptive adjectives and plain language that does not risk confusing your meaning Contributors: Joshua M.Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed.

, 2Kinesthetic Ability (Level 2) In APA Style, the Introduction section never gets a heading and headings are not indicated by letters or numbers.Levels of headings will depend upon the length and organization of your paper.Regardless, always begin with level one headings and proceed to level two, etc.Seriation APA also allows for seriation in the body text to help authors organize and present key ideas.For numbered seriation, do the following: On the basis of four generations of usability testing on the Purdue OWL, the Purdue OWL Usability Team recommended the following: Move the navigation bar from the right to the left side of the OWL pages.

Integrate branded graphics (the Writing Lab and OWL logos) into the text on the OWL homepage.Add a search box to every page of the OWL.Develop a three-tiered navigation system.For lists that do not communicate hierarchical order or chronology, use bullets: In general, participants found user-centered OWL mock up to be easier to use.

What follows are samples of participants' responses: "This version is easier to use." "It took me a few minutes to learn how to use this version, but after that, I felt more comfortable with it." Authors may also use seriation for paragraph length text.For seriation within sentences, authors may use letters: On the basis of research conducted by the usability team, OWL staff have completed (a) the OWL site map; (b) integrating graphics with text on the OWL homepage; (c) search boxes on all OWL pages except the orange OWL resources (that is pending; we do have a search page); (d) moving the navigation bar to the left side of pages on all OWL resources except in the orange area (that is pending); (e) piloting the first phase of the three-tiered navigation system, as illustrated in the new Engagement section.

Authors may also separate points with bullet lists: On the basis of the research conducted by the usability team, OWL staff have completed the OWL site map; integrating graphics with text on the OWL homepage; search boxes on all OWL pages except the orange OWL resources (that is pending; we do have a search page); moving the navigation bar to the left side of pages on all OWL resources except in the orange area (that is pending); piloting the first phase of the three-tiered navigation system, as illustrated in the new Engagement section.Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.

This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.

For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed., 2 APA PowerPoint Slide Presentation Select the APA PowerPoint Presentation link in the Media box above to download slides that provide a detailed review of the APA citation style.Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.

This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed., 2 APA Sample Paper Click on the link above in the Media box to download the pdf handout, APA Sample Paper.Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.

Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed., 2 APA Tables and Figures 1 The purpose of tables and figures in documents is to enhance your readers' understanding of the information in the document.Most word processing software available today will allow you to create your own tables and figures, and even the most basic of word processors permit the embedding of images, thus enabling you to include tables and figures in almost any document.

Visual material such as tables and figures can be used quickly and efficiently to present a large amount of information to an audience, but visuals must be used to assist communication, not to use up space, or disguise marginally significant results behind a screen of complicated statistics.Ask yourself this question first: Is the table or figure necessary? For example, it is better to present simple descriptive statistics in the text, not in a table.Because tables and figures supplement the text, refer in the text to all tables and figures used and explain what the reader should look for when using the table or figure.

Focus only on the important point the reader should draw from them, and leave the details for the reader to examine on their own.If you are using figures, tables and/or data from other sources, be sure to gather all the information you will need to properly document your sources.Each table and figure must be intelligible without reference to the text, so be sure to include an explanation of every abbreviation (except the standard statistical symbols and abbreviations).

Organization, Consistency, and Coherence.Number all tables sequentially as you refer to them in the text (Table 1, Table 2, etc.), likewise for figures (Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.Abbreviations, terminology, and probability level values must be consistent across tables and figures in the same article.

Likewise, formats, titles, and headings must be consistent.Do not repeat the same data in different tables.Tables Are all comparable tables presented consistently? Is the title brief but explanatory? Does every column have a column heading? Are all abbreviations; special use of italics, parentheses, and dashes; and special symbols explained? Are all probability level values correctly identified, and are asterisks attached to the appropriate table entries? Is a probability level assigned the same number of asterisks in all the tables in the same document? Are the notes organized according to the convention of general, specific, probability? Are all vertical rules eliminated? If the table or its data are from another source, is the source properly cited? Is the table referred to in the text? Tables Data in a table that would require only two or fewer columns and rows should be presented in the text.More complex data is better presented in tabular format.In order for quantitative data to be presented clearly and efficiently, it must be arranged logically, e.

data to be compared must be presented next to one another (before/after, young/old, male/female, etc.), and statistical information (means, standard deviations, N values) must be presented in separate parts of the table.If possible, use canonical forms (such as ANOVA, regression, or correlation) to communicate your data effectively.Image Caption: Table 1 Image Caption: Table 2 Numbers.

Number all tables with Arabic numerals sequentially.Table 3a, 3b, 3c); instead, combine the related tables.If the manuscript includes an appendix with tables, identify them with capital letters and Arabic numerals (e.

Like the title of the paper itself, each table must have a clear and concise title.

When appropriate, you may use the title to explain an abbreviation parenthetically.

Example: Comparison of Median Income of Adopted Children (AC) v.The heading should not be much wider than the widest entry in the column.Use of standard abbreviations can aid in achieving that goal.

All columns must have headings, even the stub column (see example structure), which customarily lists the major independent variables.In reporting the data, consistency is key: Numerals should be expressed to a consistent number of decimal places that is determined by the precision of measurement.Never change the unit of measurement or the number of decimal places in the same column.Specific Types of Tables Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Tables.

The conventional format for an ANOVA table is to list the source in the stub column, then the degrees of freedom (df) and the F ratios.Give the between-subject variables and error first, then within-subject and any error.Mean square errors must be enclosed in parentheses.Provide a general note to the table to explain what those values mean (see example).Use asterisks to identify statistically significant F ratios, and provide a probability footnote.

Image Caption: Table 3 ANOVA Table Regression.Conventional reporting of regression analysis follows two formats.If the study is purely applied, list only the raw or unstandardized coefficients (B).If the study is purely theoretical, list only the standardized coefficients (beta).If the study was neither purely applied nor theoretical, then list both standardized and unstandardized coefficients.

Specify the type of analysis, either hierarchical or simultaneous, and provide the increments of change if you used hierarchical regression.Image Caption: Table 4 Regression Table Notes in Tables There are three types of notes for tables: general, specific, and probability notes.All of them must be placed below the table in that order.General notes explain, qualify or provide information about the table as a whole.Put explanations of abbreviations, symbols, etc.

The racial categories used by the US Census (African-American, Asian American, Latinos/-as, Native-American, and Pacific Islander) have been collapsed into the category “non-White.” E = excludes respondents who self-identified as “White” and at least one other “non-White” race.Specific notes explain, qualify or provide information about a particular column, row, or individual entry.

To indicate specific notes, use superscript lowercase letters (e.a, b, c), and order the superscripts from left to right, top to bottom.Each table’s first footnote must be the superscript a.b One participant in this group was diagnosed with schizophrenia during the survey.

Probability notes provide the reader with the results of the tests for statistical significance.Asterisks indicate the values for which the null hypothesis is rejected, with the probability (p value) specified in the probability note.Such notes are required only when relevant to the data in the table.Consistently use the same number of asterisks for a given alpha level throughout your paper.Image Caption: Sample Table Notes If you need to distinguish between two-tailed and one-tailed tests in the same table, use asterisks for two-tailed p values and an alternate symbol (such as daggers) for one-tailed p values.

Image Caption: More Table Notes Tables from Other Sources If using tables from a source, copy the structure of the original exactly, and cite the source in accordance with APA style.Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.

For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed., 2 Are the data plotted accurately? Is the grid scale correctly proportioned? Is the lettering large and dark enough to read? Is the lettering compatible in size with the rest of the figure? Are parallel figures or equally important figures prepared according to the same scale? Are terms spelled correctly? Are all abbreviations and symbols explained in a figure legend or figure caption? Are the symbols, abbreviations, and terminology in the figure consistent with those in the figure caption? In other figures? In the text? Are the figures numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals? Are all figures mentioned in the text? As tables supplement the text, so should each figure.Types of Figures Graphs are good at quickly conveying relationships like comparison and distribution.The most common forms of graphs are scatter plots, line graphs, bar graphs, pictorial graphs, and pie graphs.

For more details and specifics on what kind of information, relations, and meaning can be expressed with the different types of graphs, consult your textbook on quantitative analysis.

Spreadsheet programs, such as Microsoft Excel, can generate the graphs for you.Scatter plots are composed of individual dots that represent the value of a specific event on the scale established by the two variables plotted on the x- and y-axes.When the dots cluster together, a correlation is implied.On the other hand, when the dots are scattered randomly, no correlation is seen.Image Caption: Scatter Plot Graph Line graphs depict the relationship between quantitative variables.

Customarily, the independent variable is plotted along the x-axis (horizontally) and the dependent variable is plotted along the y-axis (vertically).Bar graphs come in three main types: 1) solid vertical or horizontal bars, 2) multiple bar graphs, and 3) sliding bars.In solid bar graphs, the independent variable is categorical, and each bar represents one kind of datum, e.A multiple bar graph can show more complex information than a simple bar graph, e.monthly expenditures divided into categories (housing, food, transportation, etc.In sliding bar graphs, the bars are divided by a horizontal line which serves as the baseline, enabling the representation of data above and below a specific reference point, e.Image Caption: Bar Graph Image Caption: Bar Graph by Type Pictorial graphs can be used to show quantitative differences between groups.

Pictorial graphs can be very deceptive: if the height of an image is doubled, its area is quadrupled.Therefore, great care should be taken that images representing the same values must be the same size.Circle (pie) graphs are used to represent percentages and proportions.For the sake of readability, no more than five variables should be compared in a single pie graph.The segments should be ordered very strictly: beginning at twelve o’clock, order them from the largest to the smallest, and shade the segments from dark to light (i.

, the largest segment should be the darkest).Lines and dots can be used for shading in black and white documents.Image Caption: Circle (or Pie) Graph Charts are used to represent the components of larger objects or groups (e.a tribal hierarchy), the steps in a process (as in a flow-chart), or the schematics of an object (the components of a cell phone).Image Caption: Chart Drawings and photographs can be used to communicate very specific information about a subject.

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Thanks to software, both are now highly manipulable.For the sake of readability and simplicity, line drawings should be used, and photographs should have the highest possible contrast between the background and focal point.Cropping, cutting out extraneous detail, can be very beneficial for a photograph consequences of climate change, and no city can prevent catastrophic climate change on its   Urban population is expected to double by 2030;   emitting cities alone, for example, have emissions   26 Chicago, U.S.   as demand for space increases with income,   greenhouse gas emissions standard for cities should..

Cropping, cutting out extraneous detail, can be very beneficial for a photograph.

Use software like GraphicConverter or Photoshop to convert color photographs to black and white before printing on a laser printer.Otherwise most printers will produce an image with poor contrast.Image Caption: Photograph Preparing Figures In preparing figures, communication and readability must be the ultimate criteria.Avoid the temptation to use the special effects available in most advanced software packages jreference.com/thesis/design-analysis.php.Avoid the temptation to use the special effects available in most advanced software packages.While three-dimensional effects, shading, and layered text may look interesting to the author, overuse, inconsistent use, and misuse may distort the data, and distract or even annoy readers.

Design properly done is inconspicuous, almost invisible, because it supports communication.Design improperly, or amateurishly, done draws the reader’s attention from the data, and makes him or her question the author’s credibility.The APA has determined specifications for the size of figures and the fonts used in them.Figures of one column must be between 2 and 3.The height of figures should not exceed the top and bottom margins.The text in a figure should be in a san serif font (such as Helvetica, Arial, or Futura).The font size must be between eight and fourteen point.Use circles and squares to distinguish curves on a line graph (at the same font size as the other labels).

) Captions and Legends For figures, make sure to include the figure number and a title with a legend and caption.These elements appear below the visual display.Then type the title of the figure in sentence case.

Follow the title with a legend that explains the symbols in the figure and a caption that explains the figure: Figure 1.This figure illustrates effective elements in APA style figures.Captions serve as a brief, but complete, explanation and as a title.Population” is insufficient, whereas “ Figure 4.Population of Grand Rapids, MI by race (1980)” is better.If the figure has a title in the image, crop it.Additionally, if the image is reproduced from another source, include the citation at the end of the caption.Graphs should always include a legend that explains the symbols, abbreviations, and terminology used in the figure.

These terms must be consistent with those used in the text and in other figures.The lettering in the legend should be of the same type and size as that used in the figure.Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.

This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed., 2 APA Abbreviations In APA, abbreviations should be limited to instances when a) the abbreviation is standard and will not interfere with the reader’s understanding and b) if space and repetition can be greatly avoided through abbreviation.There are a few common trends in abbreviating that you should follow when using APA, though there are always exceptions to these rules.When abbreviating a term, use the full term the first time you use it, followed immediately by the abbreviation in parentheses.

According to the American Psychological Association (APA), abbreviations are best used only when they allow for clear communication with the audience.Exceptions: Standard abbreviations like units of measurement and states do not need to be written out.APA also allows abbreviations that appear as words in Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary to be used without explanation (IQ, REM, AIDS, HIV).Do not use periods or spaces in abbreviations of all capital letters, unless it is a proper name or refers to participants using identity-concealing labels: MA, CD, HTML, APA or F.Exceptions: Use a period when abbreviating the United States as an adjective (U.

Senator) Use a period if the abbreviation is Latin abbreviation or a reference abbreviation: etc.Do not use periods when abbreviating measurements: cd, ft, lb, mi, min Exceptions: Use a period when abbreviating inch (in.

Units of measurement and statistical abbreviations should only be abbreviated when accompanied by numerical values: 7 mg, 12 mi, Suppl.Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.

For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed., 2 Statistics in APA When including statistics in written text, be sure to include enough information for the reader to understand the study.Although the amount of explanation and data included depends upon the study, APA style has guidelines for the representation of statistical information: Do not give references for statistics unless the statistic is uncommon, used unconventionally, or is the focus of the article Do not give formulas for common statistics (i.mean, t test) Do not repeat descriptive statistics in the text if they’re represented in a table or figure Use terms like respectively and in order when enumerating a series of statistics; this illustrates the relationship between the numbers in the series.

Punctuating statistics to be statistically significant ( p = .Use parentheses to enclose degrees of freedom: t(45) = 4.Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed., 2 APA Classroom Poster The APA poster at the link below is a printable jpg file you may download and print out at different sizes for use in classrooms, writing centers, or as a pocket reference.

Please keep in mind that the file size, as a print-quality resource (120 dpi), is large, so it may take a while to download.You may adjust the print size of the poster from your print menu.Because the poster is quite large, standard printers cannot print the poster.If you do not have access to a printer that can print large documents, contact a local print shop to print the poster.

The Purdue OWL cannot grant requests to print and mail posters.If you do not have access to a print shop to print the poster, please use the resources we have available here for printing on standard 8.Go to resource you would like to print, scroll down to the bottom of the page, and click "Full Resource for Printing." Also please note that the poster only contains basic APA guidelines.

For detailed instructions, please see the complete OWL APA resources here.The Purdue OWL APA Classroom Poster was developed by Kate Bouwens for the Purdue Professional Writing - Purdue OWL Internship class, English 490, in spring 2009.Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.

This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed., 2 APA Changes 6th Edition The American Psychological Association (APA) updated its style manual in the summer of 2009.This resource presents the changes made between the fifth and sixth editions.Please note that the first printing of the APA sixth edition contained misprints; if you are using the APA manual, make sure you are using at least the second printing of the sixth edition.

Traditionally, psychologists were the main users of APA, but recently, students and writers in other fields began using APA style.Therefore, the sixth edition was written with a broader audience in mind.The changes made to the sixth edition reflect this broader audience.This resource was created following the APA manual’s “What’s New in APA,” is organized according to the APA manual chapters, and highlights updates to the sixth edition that most concern student writers instead of those interested in publishing manuscripts.For a more complete discussion of the changes, please visit this site.

Levels of Heading Headings are used to help guide the reader through a document.The levels are organized by levels of subordination, and each section of the paper should start with the highest level of heading.31 in the APA manual) APA Headings Reducing Bias in Language (3.

11) Using precise language is expected in scientific writing, and the sixth edition offers new ways in which to talk about research participants (note that “subjects” is still an acceptable term to use, but “participants” is more representative of the individuals’ roles in the research project).

Refer to participants at the appropriate level of specificity.The manual provides the example of using women and men to refer to all human beings instead of only using man.Man is appropriate to use when referring to one man but not when referring to a population that includes men and women.Refer to participants how they wish to be called.Try to avoid labels if possible, but if this is not avoidable, be respectful.

For example, instead of labeling a group “the elderly" or "the arthritic," labels in which individuals are lost, try “older adults" or "a woman with arthritis." Acknowledge participants’ participation while still following the rules in your field.For example, a cognitive psychology student might use the term “subjects” in her research report, but a nursing student might use the term “patients” to refer to those who participated in his research.Whatever term you choose to use, be sure you are consistent throughout your paper and with your field’s guidelines.

Regarding punctuation in manuscript drafts, APA suggests using two spaces after periods ending sentences to aid readability.One space: “Previous research shows that patients are interested in palliative care.This research project explores how to discuss palliative care with patients.

” Two spaces: “Previous research shows that patients are interested in palliative care.This research project explores how to discuss palliative care with patients.Use words to express approximations of days, months, and year.

“I started spelunking about four years ago.Use a zero before the decimal point with numbers less than one when the statistic can be greater than one.56 kg Do not use a zero before the decimal point when the number cannot be greater than one.015 Include effect sizes and confidence intervals with statistics.This will allow the reader to more fully understand the conducted analyses.Use brackets to group together confidence interval limits in both the body text and tables (5.

94) Displaying Results The sixth edition includes a section (5.This section can help you decide when and how to display your data.For example, your data might show that you are exploring data and information, or your data may serve a storage purpose for later retrieval.More than likely, though, your data will serve either a communication purpose to show you have discovered meaning in data and you want to show/communicate to others this meaning.Figures include graphs, charts, maps, drawings, and photographs.

As a general rule, only include figures when they add to the value of the paper.If the figure merely repeats what is written in the paper, do not include it, as it does not add any new information to the paper.The sixth edition also emphasizes the importance of clearly labeling electrophysiological, radiological, and genetic data.01-21) The sixth edition provides explicit rules for direct quotations and states that you must credit the source when “paraphrasing, quoting an author directly, or describing an idea that influenced your work” (p.

If the quotation is less than 40 words, incorporate the quotation into the text and place quotation marks round the quotation.Cite the source immediately after the quotation and continue with the sentence.Porter (1998) has stated that, “The internetworked classroom has the potential (not yet realized) to empower students” (p.5), and this research project examines this potential.

If the quotation you are using falls at the end of the sentence, enclose the quotation with quotation marks without including the quotation’s original punctuation.Here’s a sentence as it appears in the original text: “Semantic frames/domains represent one of the two major organizing principles for conceptual structure” (Croft & Cruse, 2004, p.Here’s what the sentence looks like when quoted within a text: In arguing for frame semantics, Croft and Cruse (2004) asserted, “Semantic frames/domains represent one of the two major organizing principles for conceptual structure” (p.If the quotation has more than 40 words, use a block quotation.Begin the quotation on a new line and indent a half-inch from the left margin.Double-space the entire quotation, and at the end of the quotation, provide citation information after the final punctuation mark.John Nicholson (1820) anticipated this effect when discussing farming methods in the nineteenth century: Perhaps it would be well, if some institution were devised, and supported at the expense of the State, which would be so organized as would tend most effectually to produce a due degree of emulation among Farmers, by rewards and honorary distinctions conferred by those who, by their successful experimetnal efforts and improvements, should render themselves duly entitled to them.92) The Reference List References that appear in the text must appear in the references list in alphabetical order by the author’s last name, with the exception of personal communication; only cite personal communication in the text, not in the reference list.Because electronic publishing has become a standard in research, the sixth edition provides an overview of electronic sources and how to reference them, specifically with URLs and DOIs.URLs, more commonly known as a web address, locate information housed on the Internet.

The fifth edition specified that references to electronic sources should refer to the article’s or document’s URL.However, they are prone to “breaking” or deleting, and to resolve issues associated with the unstable nature of URLs, publishers have started using DOIs with articles.For more details on how to cite electronic sources with following the sixth edition, consult your APA manual or the OWL’s resource on citing electronic sources.While citing from a webpage, you may not be able to find a page number to refer to, i.Instead, refer to the paragraph number from which you are citing where you would usually insert a page number by using “para.Be sure to include the author’s/s’ name/s and year, too, if applicable.

“The Purdue University Writing Lab and Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) assist clients in their development as writers—no matter what their skill level—with on-campus consultations, online participation, and community engagement” (Purdue OWL, 2010, “Mission,” para.“Mission” is used here to refer to the section in which this quote was found.Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.

Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed., 2 General APA FAQs The following FAQs address issues in APA citation and/or formatting.The entries in this section are based on frequently asked questions received by our former OWL Mail Tutors.

Also, Further information on APA style and citation can be found at the Purdue OWL’s APA Style and Formatting resource.I’m writing an APA style paper, but I can’t get the header on the first page to be different than the subsequent pages.How do I set a different header on the first page? If you are using Word 2007, you can make the header of the first page different from the header on the second and following pages.To do this, please follow these steps: 1.Click on "Header" and choose the Header template you wish to use.Type in the text you would like for the first page.When you type in your text in the header, you will see the "Design" tab is highlighted.

There you can click on "Different first page.

" This will allow you to type in different text within your header beginning with page two.Word which allows you to do this, you can simply type “Running Head: SHORTENED TITLE OF YOUR PAPER” at the upper most line on the first page without typing it inside the header.Then type the shortened title inside the header as you wish it to appear throughout your document.Using APA, how do I cite an author if their work is referenced more than once in a single paragraph? Here’s what the 6 th edition of the APA manual says: "Within a paragraph, when the name of the author is part of the need not include the year in subsequent nonparenthetical references to a study as long as the study cannot be confused with other studies cited in the article.Do include the year in all parenthetical citations" (pg.

In other words, every time you bring up the author in a new paragraph, you should use the year, but you don’t have to within a paragraph, as long as it’s clear from your wording that you are discussing the same author.If you were giving a direct quotation that needed a parenthetical reference for the page number, then you’d include the year as well.

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How do I cite a work that has no listed author in an APA-style paper? According to the OWL website’s resource on APA-style citations, "When your essay includes parenthetical citations of sources with no author named, use a shortened version of the source’s title instead of an author’s name.Use quotation marks and italics as appropriate.

For example, parenthetical citations of the source above would appear as follows: ( Merriam-Webster’s 1993) Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in APA.   Your essay should be typed and double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5  x   to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their   Because online materials can potentially change URLs, APA recommends  .For example, parenthetical citations of the source above would appear as follows: ( Merriam-Webster’s 1993).

" The bibliographical citation is as follows: Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10 th ed.What do I do if the source-type that I’m using doesn’t appear in any APA reference/style guides? The APA manual models several different templates for references, but the forms given may not apply to all documents.In this case, the APA manual states that you should format the entry as best you can in accordance with their models: "Occasionally, however, you may need to use a reference for a source for which this chapter does not provide specific guidance Research paper on international accounting standards a past life changing   is a hypothesis in a research paper notes buy essay service canada responsible   of climate change research paper? should college essays be double spaced key  .In this case, the APA manual states that you should format the entry as best you can in accordance with their models: "Occasionally, however, you may need to use a reference for a source for which this chapter does not provide specific guidance.In such a case choose the example that is most like your source and follow that in doubt, provide more information rather than less." (American Psychological Association, 2009 p jreference.com/coursework/buy-ecology-coursework-us-letter-size-college-freshman-british-for-me." (American Psychological Association, 2009 p.What do I do if a website is missing information required for an APA-style citation? The APA Style Blog is a helpful source when it comes to citing websites with missing information.For example, if your website has no author, you can use the following example as a template for the citation for your reference page: All 33 Chile miners freed in flawless rescue.Retrieved from /id/39625809/ns/world news-americas/ As you can see, the title of the document is moved up to where the author’s name would be.If your website has no date, you can put "n.

For example: The College of William and Mary.Retrieved from /about/administration/provost/mission/ If I co-author a paper, how should the author’s names appear in an APA-style title page? According to the 6 th edition of the APA manual, "The names of the authors should appear in the order of their contributions, centered between the side margins.and III), separate the suffix from the rest of the name with a space instead of a comma.The institutional affiliation should be centered under the author’s name, on the next line" (p.Some examples include the following: Two authors, one affiliation: Educational Testing Service, Princeton, New Jersey Three authors, one affiliation: University of Colorado at Boulder Two authors, two affiliations: Georgetown University I’m including clip art in my APA style PowerPoint presentation.

How do I properly cite the clip art that I’m going to use? If you are using the clip art simply to adorn your PowerPoint presentation, you don’t need to cite it.The 6 th Edition of the APA manual does not offer a specific discussion of this issue, but it seems unnecessary to provide citation on a document presented via the Microsoft program for stock images that a specific to that software package.However, if the clip art is presented in a separate medium (like a handout), and you want to be very thorough about citation or if your presentation is specifically about clip art and the point is to discuss clip art from different sources, then you should cite the source.Here is the format you should follow: Title of Program (Version number) Description of format .th Edition of the APA manual: Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (Version 2) Computer Software .For the clip art from on-line sources, because these are texts that are relocated from an outside source, you should probably cite them regardless of the situation.Here’s the format: Name of image creator, A.

Title of image in italics medium of image - i.How do I cite unpublished works in APA? Here is the relevant format from the APA manual, 6 th edition, p.

A five dimensional measure of drinking motives.

Unpublished manuscript, Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.Manuscript in progress or submitted for publication: Ting, J.Mental health help-seeking Manuscript submitted for publication or "Manuscript in preparation" .Along with the format for the latter work, you can add the university where the author works (if indeed they are doing research as part of their position with a university or college).I’m writing a paper about computer-aided writing instruction.How do I cite pieces of software in APA? According to the 6 for citing software: of form .

Alternatively, instead of using "Location:." made the software), you can start the citation with the name of the program.Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (Version 2) Computer software .

The date may be excluded if it is not available.If you are citing a piece of software for a smartphone of a video game console, I would use the most descriptive term for the kind of software you’re using, i.How do I cite my professor’s classroom PowerPoint presentations in APA? Your first choice is to follow the format for online You would reference this source in-text as you normally would by the author’s last name and date.Your second choice is to refer to the lecture as personal communication.For an example, please see this resource on the Purdue OWL.Please note: personal communication is only cited in-text and not within your References list.How do I cite lecture notes in my APA-style research paper? The citation on the Reference page for the lecture notes would look like the following in APA: Author.

In italics write the name or title of the lecture.Personal Collection of (the lecturer’s name), school or organization they teach for, city, state.Lecture on Reminiscences of Wundt and Leipsig.Berliner, University of Akron, Akron OH.How do I cite a work of art, like Salvador Dali’s The Ecumenical Council, in APA? There is no “official” APA citation style for paintings or other works of art, but the APA Style Blog recently addressed this question with the in a recent post.You can access that post by clicking here.

As they say, "There are no guidelines for paintings, sculptures, or more complicated installations (e., a chair, a photo of a chair, and a definition of “chair”).So let’s use the Franken reference concept to model a few ways to handle art in your reference list.

" The basic format they suggest is below (using Wyeth’s painting Christina’s/explore/collection/index I created and administered my own survey for a project.

How would I cite this survey in an APA-style paper? Since a survey you conducted yourself is not published elsewhere by someone else, you do not cite it in the same way you cite other materials.Instead, in your paper you describe your survey and make it clear that the data you’re referring to is from the survey, usually by saying so in introductory sentences.In your paper, you should include a short overview of your survey method: whom the survey was administered to, how it was administered, how many responses you got, and what kind of questions you asked.You should include a copy of the survey instrument (the full set of questions asked) as an appendix to your paper.You do not need to include your survey in your works cited list.

How does one cite state bills in APA? APA follows the guidelines for legal citations in the United States as outlined in The Bluebook However, guidelines for references to legal materials can also be found on pages 216-224 in the 6 th of the The following sample reference to a statute in a state code and its explanation can be found on page 220: Mental Care and Treatment Act, 4 Kan.Explanation: This Kansas act can be found in codified version between sections 2901 and 2941 in Chapter 59 of volume 4 of the 1983 edition of Kansas Statutes Annotated.Two amendments to the act and additional references are provided in the 1992 supplement for the Kansas Statutes Annotated.How do I cite artifacts in an APA-style paper? Artifacts may fall under "Archival Documents and Collections."An extensive explanation of this can be found in the 6 th edition of the APA publication manual.The general format for this reference is as follows: Author, A.

Name of Collection (Call number, Box number, File name or number, etc.

This general format may be modified for collections requiring more or less specific information to locate materials, for different types of collections, or for additional descriptive information.If the artifact you are referencing is not accessible by others, nor is it reproducible, it may not need to be cited.How do I cite a products instructional guide (e.

, the Apple iPad user’s manual) in APA? While the APA publication manual lists many different references, product instructions are not something that has a specific reference example.Since there is not a specific reference guideline for instructions, I would adapt another similar reference for your uses.For example: Title of the Instructions (Year).Note: If the product is maintained at a business, list the name of the business and city, state for the "current location of product." If you own the product you are referencing, list "Copy in possession of author." How do I cite genealogies in APA? The APA does not seem to specifically address this issue, probably because it is very particular.

Here’s what we’ve been able to find from other sources: offers a method of citing birth/death certificates, which can be found by clicking here and scrolling down to the “Official Records” section of the page.also offers suggestions on how to cite birth/death certificates, which can be accessed by clicking here.Climate Business | Business Climate Reprint: F0710A Climate change will affect everything businesses do, as government efforts to mitigate carbon emissions cause their prices to rise steeply.This month’s Forethought takes a hard-nosed look at the risks and opportunities of climate change.A Strategic Approach to Climate Michael E.

Reinhardt The effects of climate change on companies’ operations are now so tangible and certain that the issue is best addressed with the tools of the strategist, not the philanthropist.Investing in Global Security Peter Schwartz Climate change could devastate the economies of vulnerable regions.By taking the lead in helping those areas adapt to global warming, firms can advance their interests while building goodwill in communities where they do business.How Will a Warmer World Look? The forecast for extreme climate phenomena and their expected repercussions.

Esty Customers, capital markets, governments, and NGOs are putting more pressure on corporations to report on emissions and reduce them.Companies that fail to meet those expectations face serious consequences, for four reasons.Conversation Alyson Slater, the director of strategy at Global Reporting Initiative—the organization that developed the most widely used framework of reporting principles for carbon emissions—discusses the benefits of voluntary disclosure.

If You’re Not at the Table, You’re on the Menu Andrew J.

Hoffman Sitting on the sidelines as climate policy forms is reckless.Corporations need to know what regulatory issues are at stake—and where.When Being Green Backfires Auden Schendler Companies have been outdoing one another with high-profile purchases of renewable energy certificates symbolizing “green” electricity.Ironically, the buying spree may end up tarnishing those firms’ green credentials.Accounting for Climate Change Vicki Bakhshi and Alexis Krajeski How will the prospect of climate change affect your business in the midterm? A consolidated balance sheet for a company in the year 2010 suggests answers.

Investors Hunger for Clean Energy Theodore Roosevelt IV and John Llewellyn Virtually any firm in any sector can reap the benefits of investors’ surging demand for business ideas that will take advantage of changing views and regulations on greenhouse gases.Leading Change in Latin America Maria Emilia Correa A key part of the strategy at Masisa, a forestry and wood-manufacturing company in Chile, is to engage B2B customers in efforts to become greener.Walking the Talk at Swiss Re Mark Way and Britta Rendlen Here’s why Swiss Re has put its money and muscle behind an incentive program to persuade employees to reduce their carbon footprints.Place Your Bets on the Future You Want Forest L.Reinhardt Success in a carbon-constrained world will be determined by innovation, acumen, and leadership.

That will require companies to make bold moves.We don’t know precisely how climate change will alter the planet, but two things are certain: Its complex environmental impact will directly affect business, society, and ecosystems; and governments will seek to mitigate its effects with far-reaching regulations.Until recently, companies have for the most part freely emitted carbon, but they will increasingly find that those emissions have a steep price, both monetary and social.As a result, businesses that continue to sit on the sidelines will be badly handicapped relative to those that are now devising strategies to reduce risk and find competitive advantage in a warming, carbon-constrained world.In this month’s Forethought, we’ve invited leading thinkers from business and academia to help our readers address climate issues by framing strategy, strengthening security, shaping policy, protecting reputation, and engaging customers, employees, and markets.

This special section provides a hard-nosed look at a tough new environment.Companies that get their strategy right will find vast opportunities to both profit and create social good on a global scale.Reinhardt Climate change is now a fact of political life and is playing a growing role in business competition.Greenhouse gas emissions will be increasingly scrutinized, regulated, and priced.While individual managers can disagree about how immediate and significant the impact of climate change will be, companies need to take action now.Companies that persist in treating climate change solely as a corporate social responsibility issue, rather than a business problem, will risk the greatest consequences.Of course, a company’s climate policies will be affected by stakeholder expectations and standards for social responsibility.

But the effects of climate on companies’ operations are now so tangible and certain that the issue is best addressed with the tools of the strategist, not the philanthropist.From Effectiveness to Strategy There is no one-size-fits-all approach to climate change.Each company’s approach will depend on its particular business and should mesh with its overall strategy.For every company, the approach must include initiatives to mitigate climate-related costs and risks in its value chain.Business leaders need to start treating carbon emissions as costly, because they are or soon will be, and companies need to assess and reduce their vulnerability to climate-related environmental and economic shocks.

Every firm needs to get those basics right, as a matter of operational effectiveness.1 A firm that has more employees than it needs in its shipping department is operationally ineffective; its managers are wasting resources and creating a drag on performance.In the same way, a firm that produces excess emissions in its shipping operations is also operationally ineffective—it is wasting resources and incurring unnecessary costs that are certain to rise.Implementing best practices in managing climate-related costs is the minimum required to remain competitive.In addition to understanding its emissions costs, every firm needs to evaluate its vulnerability to climate-related effects such as regional shifts in the availability of energy and water, the reliability of infrastructures and supply chains, and the prevalence of infectious diseases.

The firm’s leaders should systematically assess these risks and then decide which to reduce through redesigning operations, which to transfer to others through insurance or hedging contracts, and which to bear.For some, but not all, companies, the approach to climate change can go beyond operational effectiveness and become strategic.Some firms, in the process of addressing climate change, will find opportunities to enhance or extend their competitive positioning by creating products (such as hybrid cars) that exploit climate-induced demand, by leading the restructuring of their industries to address climate issues more effectively, or by innovating in activities affected by climate change to produce a genuine competitive advantage.For example, an operational response to climate change in outbound logistics or after-sales service might involve more-efficient engines on delivery and service vehicles, or modified schedules to reduce traffic delays.By contrast, strategic approaches could involve reconfiguring the activity entirely: In outbound logistics, firms might replace physical books or manuals with electronic versions, and in after-sales service, they could supplant physical visits by service technicians with remote diagnostics and treatment programs.

Inside Out and Outside In To set a firm’s approach to climate change and assess the strategic opportunity, business leaders need to look “inside out” to understand the impact of the firm’s activities on the climate and “outside in” at how changing climate (in both its physical and its regulatory manifestations) may affect the business environment in which the firm competes.2 To understand the inside-out impact, managers need to study the firm’s value chain.Any value-chain activity—inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics, marketing, sales, after-sales service—can generate emissions.The simple ratio of profits to total emissions in the value chain can be a very telling measure of potential climate impact.If new regulations put a price of, say, $10 a ton on emissions, would that put a significant dent in the profits or even swallow them altogether? “Carbon exposure” rises with the impact of carbon costs on profits.

Like other risks, carbon exposure carries opportunities as well as challenges: Forestry companies, for example, may find that removing carbon dioxide from the air by planting trees may be as profitable as cutting them down and producing paper or plywood.The emissions impact of activities in the value chain can be direct or indirect.Emissions can be generated by an activity under the firm’s direct control or induced by the firm in the activities of suppliers, channels, and customers.A company needs to understand the emissions it causes its business partners to produce, as well as those it generates itself: Both types are important targets for reduction.

These changing inside-out impacts have potentially revolutionary implications.

For example, modern supply chains, with their transportation-intensive, just-in-time inventory management systems, may no longer be optimal in a world with more costly emissions.Similarly, e-commerce, with its proliferation of small shipments, may face real limits.And in some cases offshoring, which drives up emissions by lengthening transportation hauls, may be supplanted by lower-emissions onshoring to nearby clusters of suppliers.High carbon exposure, as revealed by an inside-out analysis, does not by itself mean that climate is strategic for a firm.Once managers understand their firm’s overall carbon exposure and the emissions impact of specific activities in the value chain, they can devise an action plan to address them.

Emissions-intensive activities that add little value are candidates for elimination or outsourcing to more-efficient firms.Those that are important to value may become strategic if a company can reduce its exposure relative to competitors through improved performance.Inside-out analysis helps shed light on the logic behind Wal-Mart’s approach to climate.Wal-Mart’s activities are logistics- and transportation-intensive, and the firm is actively seeking to reduce the resultant emissions.At first blush this approach looks purely operational: The firm is reducing energy use to mitigate the potential harmful effects of emissions on costs in its value chain.

Wal-Mart’s emissions-reduction programs will be strategic, however, if it can use its scale, scope, ability to invest heavily in technology, and reconfiguration of its value chain to reduce emissions in a way that is difficult for its smaller rivals to replicate.Wal-Mart seems to be making a strategic bet that it can reduce its carbon exposure more than competitors can and keep it lower.In tandem with inside-out analysis, an outside-in look can reveal a new array of opportunities and threats.Climate change will affect a firm’s business environment in two broad ways: through shifting temperature and weather patterns, and through regulations that increase the cost of emissions.Either can affect the availability of business inputs; the size, growth, and nature of demand; access to related and supporting industries; and the rules and incentives surrounding industry rivalry.

Business leaders should evaluate how climate change may affect each part of this context for competition.While property insurers’ own carbon emissions may be low, for example, carbon exposure may be high for companies that insure or reinsure coastal real estate that is threatened by rising sea levels.Similarly, most of the carbon emissions associated with oil come not from oil companies but from their customers.Restrictions on emissions will constrain the demand for these companies’ products.Or consider the multifaceted outside-in impact on a food company like Nestl .

Climate change will alter the relative productivity of various regions in which the firm buys agricultural commodities, affecting input costs.At the same time, the regulatory responses to climate change will raise the costs of energy used in keeping ice cream cold in retail outlets, which will affect demand conditions.Firms can address outside-in effects strategically if they can manage them in ways that competitors cannot readily match.

Chicago climate action plan alliance for water efficiency

Nestl eschews upstream vertical integration and instead outsources its raw material production.

That makes its supply chain more flexible, which could provide valuable strategic advantage if the productivity of various regions shifts and Nestl ’s competitors find themselves constrained by their more rigid supply structures.Likewise, drought-resistant crop strains and vaccines and treatments for insect-borne diseases will become increasingly valuable (as long as their innovators can protect their intellectual property) Help me with a college essay climate change ASA American A4 (British/European) Business.Likewise, drought-resistant crop strains and vaccines and treatments for insect-borne diseases will become increasingly valuable (as long as their innovators can protect their intellectual property).

Periodically, major new forces dramatically reshape the business world—as globalization and the information technology revolution have been doing for the past several decades.Climate change, in its complexity and potential impact, may rival them both The document must be set at the US letter standard size.   should be double-spaced with 1-inch (2.5 cm) margins on all sides and no extra   The Advances in Research style guide is based on The Chicago Manual of   Author-Date Examples   Report to the Commission on Climate Change and Development, Ministry..Climate change, in its complexity and potential impact, may rival them both.While many companies may still think of global warming as a corporate social responsibility issue, business leaders need to approach it in the same hardheaded manner as any other strategic threat or opportunity.

Porter is the Bishop William Lawrence University Professor at Harvard University; he is based at Harvard Business School in Boston.He is a coauthor of Redefining Health Care: Creating Value-Based Competition on Results (Harvard Business School Press, 2006).Black Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School.He is the author of Down to Earth: Applying Business Principles to Environmental Management (Harvard Business School Press, 1999).For more on operational effectiveness and strategy, see “What Is Strategy?” by Michael E.A full explication of inside-out/outside-in analysis is available in Michael E.Kramer’s article, “Strategy and Society: The Link Between Competitive Advantage and Corporate Social Responsibility” (HBR December 2006 ).Risk: Investing in Global Security by Peter Schwartz Climate change may happen abruptly, and its effects could be devastating.

How global companies respond today in the regions that may be hardest hit will affect the viability of the markets in those areas.Rather than retreat from them, however, companies need to improve their future resilience.This is as much a matter of strategy as of corporate social responsibility.In the coming decades, we can expect to see sea levels rise and more extreme droughts, storms, and flooding.

These events become security concerns for businesses when people are forced to flee, infrastructure is destroyed, ecosystems fail, agriculture is disrupted, economic volatility increases, and some regions become uninhabitable.

We know that climate extremes can destroy thriving business environments and even societies.The long, monstrous war in Darfur is properly understood as genocide caused by a struggle for resources that resulted from the kinds of events that will accompany climate change.Hurricane Katrina so severely damaged local infrastructure that many businesses still haven’t recovered.Imagine what will happen when, with even a modest sea level rise, flood-prone Bangladesh experiences increasingly severe monsoons and is all but submerged: More than one hundred million people could be forced to seek refuge in neighboring India or China, causing dangerous social and economic strain.Or imagine a drought in southern China that radically reduces the flow of the Mekong River, which runs through six Asian countries.

The conflicts that would arise around access to water—for irrigation, for households, for industry—could disrupt this region’s fast-growing economies.Companies need to anticipate the ways that climate change may directly affect their businesses, including supply-chain breakdowns, employee migrations, increases in disease, or even impact on reputation (multinational corporations may be blamed for climate-related environmental problems).But they also need to evaluate their risks more broadly, identifying whether the environments they operate in are susceptible to catastrophic, cascading climate-related disruption.To do so, they should systematically assess the vulnerability of these environments to floods, droughts, and storms, paying particular attention to areas that have a limited ability to anticipate and adapt to climate change.The most vulnerable will be places where, for example, the state has limited capacity to respond, the local ecosystem is fragile, urbanization is accelerating with few social services, and the water supply is already stretched.

Haiti is perhaps the most extreme case, but India, the Philippines, and parts of Central America are all at risk.In such a stressed system, a severe, prolonged weather event could launch a crisis of interconnected events from which recovery might be impossible.Companies can help vulnerable regions plan for climate change, reducing their own risks by making proactive investments and supporting policy initiatives that they might have resisted in the past, such as tougher local air and water quality standards.And, of course, firms can be prepared themselves to help with urgent relief efforts when some of the worst effects actually do come about.In fact, the systems vulnerabilities created by climate change can turn into “systems opportunities” for businesses to develop novel partnerships with government, other players in the supply chain, and even traditional competitors, for example in preparing the infrastructure needed for disaster recovery.

By taking a leadership role in helping regions anticipate climate change and mitigate risk, companies can advance their interests while building goodwill in the communities in which they do business.Coca-Cola’s recently announced partnership with the World Wildlife Fund to help protect global water resources and improve the firm’s own water management is a good example of a company’s effort to address climate change both directly in its own operations and in the wider society it serves.Coke’s actions are likely to help both the company and local communities, while enhancing the company’s image around the world.Multinational firms prepared to take the long view can avoid the worst consequences of climate change and perhaps help business build a stronger reputation as a powerful agent of societal well-being.Peter Schwartz ([email protected] ) is a cofounder and the chairman of Global Business Network, a strategy consultancy in San Francisco and part of the Monitor Group.

His related white paper “Impacts of Climate Change” is available at /climatechange.Forecast: How Will a Warmer World Look During this century, climate change will cause extreme phenomena that will have significant repercussions for humanity, industry, and the environment.The timing and exact nature of the effects are uncertain, but scientists’ best estimates, summarized in the table below, can help businesses think strategically about their response.Projected Changes This Century by Daniel C.Esty As Apple sped toward the June 2007 launch of its innovative iPhone, the company hit an awkward bump in the road.

An environmental group called Climate Counts released a scorecard ranking major corporations on their tracking, reporting, and reduction of greenhouse gases.Apple came in dead last in the electronics industry category, with a score of 2 out of 100.Accounts of Apple’s abysmal performance spread instantly in the blogosphere and were reported by MSNBC, the Wall Street Journal Online, Reuters, and other mainstream media.Should Steve Jobs be worried? Absolutely.Increasingly, customers, employees, and capital markets—as well as governments and NGOs—expect companies to release public reports on greenhouse gas emissions, make progress in improving energy efficiency, and hit targets for reducing emissions.

Companies that fail to meet those expectations face potentially serious business consequences, for four broad reasons.First, subpar environmental performance has become hard to hide and threatening to a company’s reputation.The Climate Counts ranking of Apple was only the most recent in a series of damning evaluations of the company by such organizations as the Carbon Disclosure Project.Poor marks on reporting and managing climate impact are putting Apple’s reputation for being cutting-edge and cool at risk.That may seem far-fetched, given Apple’s robust performance and passionate customers.

But some environmental NGOs have begun raising consumer awareness about Apple’s lack of environmental effort, the most notable being Greenpeace with its “Green myApple” campaign, which took the company to task for its “iWaste,” and company executives, including Steve Jobs, have privately expressed concern about a backlash against the firm for its poor environmental ratings.In a May 2007 letter posted on Apple’s website, Jobs acknowledged the criticism of the company’s environmental performance and pledged to henceforth “openly discuss our plans to become a greener Apple.” Second, smart management of environmental issues has become a way to positively shape brand image and attract new customers.To date, the evidence on this front is anecdotal rather than rigorously statistical.But growing public interest in climate-friendly companies and products is driving many major firms to put a green stake in the ground.

Carbon reporting and emissions management has become a public relations battleground among supermarkets in the UK, for example.After Tesco pledged to invest £100 million in environmental technologies to reduce its energy consumption, Marks & Spencer announced that it would go “carbon neutral,” coming out with a 100-point action plan on climate change and the environment.Conveying a dramatic sense of urgency, company CEO Stuart Rose observed, “We are calling this ‘Plan A’ because there is no ‘Plan B.’ “A few days later, Tesco responded by promising to label all 70,000 items it sells with data on each product’s carbon footprint.Highly visible moves like these reveal a keen understanding of customers’ shifting attitudes.

Third, reporting signals a company’s seriousness about climate change and provides a gauge of its ability to track and manage emissions.That capability is seen by many observers, including Wall Street analysts, as a proxy for good environmental management, which studies show correlates with good general management and superior stock market performance over time.Reporting is similarly seen as a measure of corporate trustworthiness and good governance.Fourth, financial markets are beginning to recognize that inattention to greenhouse gas emissions may soon have real cost and risk implications.

investors with a combined total of $4 trillion under management called on the U.Congress to enact legislation to curb carbon emissions.In a statement, the signatories, including investment funds for labor unions, state pensions, insurance companies, and major asset managers, wrote, “In the current unpredictable national climate policy environment, it is exceedingly difficult and risky for businesses to evaluate and justify the large-scale, long-term capital investments needed to seize existing and emerging opportunities….

” Dozens of funds now screen companies for environmental and sustainability factors, including emissions reporting, and exclude poor performers.In July, for example, Citigroup downgraded coal stocks across the board, explaining in an equity research report that “ coal company productivity/margins are likely to be structurally impaired by new regulatory mandates applied to a group perceived as landscape-disfiguring global warming bad-guys.” Meanwhile, the number of environmental resolutions before shareholders in the 2007 U.proxy season set record highs, led by demands to address climate risks.

With the United States moving toward regulating emissions and Europe already imposing greenhouse gas limits, large companies that don’t report are assumed to have high emissions.They’re thus considered to be exposed to forthcoming carbon charges, as well as to current high energy costs, risks that could undermine their competitiveness.Meanwhile, companies that track greenhouse gases closely and report results appear better positioned to undertake serious emissions-control efforts and to minimize the consequences of new regulatory requirements.Indeed, when buyout powerhouses KKR and Texas Pacific Group made a deal to acquire TXU, the big Dallas-based utility, they changed little except the company’s plan to build 11 new coal-fired power plants, cutting that number to three.The private equity firms concluded that investing in coal today when carbon emissions were sure to be costly in the future made little sense.

A broader trend here is worth noting: In 2006, TXU’s stock price suffered after Environmental Defense activists launched a campaign opposing the coal plants, which made the company vulnerable.The prospect of takeover by powerful private equity groups is likely to force a discipline on any company that fails to calculate its carbon exposure and adjust its strategy accordingly.Beyond responding to stakeholder pressures, careful tracking and management of emissions prepares companies to manage climate change challenges systematically.Those who fail to monitor, report, and mitigate emissions face the prospect of mounting competitive disadvantage.Esty ( @ ) is the Hillhouse Professor at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, and the director of the Center for Business and the Environment at Yale.Winston, of Green to Gold: How Smart Companies Use Environmental Strategy to Innovate, Create Value, and Build Competitive Advantage (Yale University Press, 2006).Conversation: Alyson Slater, Global Reporting Initiative’s Director of Strategy, On How Disclosing Emissions Benefits Companies Carbon-emissions reporting is a laborious undertaking that publicly exposes potentially serious liabilities and risks facing your business—and it’s voluntary.So why do it? We explored that question with Alyson Slater, the director of strategy at Global Reporting Initiative, an Amsterdam-based organization that has developed the most widely used framework of reporting principles, guidance, and standard disclosures on environmental, social, and economic performance.

Why should businesses care about voluntary reporting on carbon emissions? It’s the fiduciary duty of any company to ask, Is this issue important to our stakeholders? Today it is very difficult for a company to say that greenhouse gas emissions are not a subject of material interest to stakeholders.If you’re a supplier to Wal-Mart, you have to answer yes.If you’re in the oil and gas business, you have to answer yes.If you’re a company looking for good access to capital markets, where more and more investment firms are considering climate change impact as part of a company’s risk profile, you have to answer yes.Whatever sector or business you’re in, disclosure is increasingly expected, and failure to disclose can put you at a strategic disadvantage.

How does the reporting process help a company address climate-related risks? Companies quickly realize that reporting can’t happen without strategy development.As firms start the process of putting a report together—talking to stakeholders, examining core businesses—they’ll have to back up and ask, What is our strategy on climate change anyway? What is our approach to managing this risk? The discipline of sorting out which activities are material to report on and in what depth, and what data will be used to document progress, forces companies to formulate strategies.For companies that haven’t been engaged in climate change and need to catch up with competitors that are disclosing, the reporting process is a stimulus for opening up a dialogue with stakeholders about the issue.Just as important, the report serves as an accountability mechanism.It allows a company to make commitments and show through performance that it is doing what it said it would do.

If you think about the “plan, do, check, act” cycle of corporate management, reporting provides the check: Here are our goals; here’s the system we’ve put in place.Now let’s see how we’re progressing and where we need to readjust.Aren’t disclosures of potential trouble areas risky? Companies’ natural instinct, which we’ve seen across the board, is to avoid public disclosure on potential risks, whether it’s greenhouse gas emissions or something else.But we’ve also seen how reporting creates a communications avenue through which companies can effectively and accurately position themselves with their stakeholders—investors, customers, regulators, and so on.You can’t walk through an airport in Europe, for example, without seeing a BP poster for its “Beyond Petroleum” campaign.

In this initiative, BP draws on hard facts from its reporting process as it works to shape the carbon-emissions debate and position itself as a leader in renewable energy sources.It’s using report data—this is not greenwashing—to demonstrate its nimbleness as a company to adapt to emerging risks and be on the cutting edge of new opportunities.From a governance standpoint, how much weight should information from the reporting process carry? It’s a primary responsibility of the board and the CEO to determine the implications of their company’s future climate risks and (a) report them and (b) mitigate them.Companies are adept at assessing their financial performance, but too many are afraid to look in the mirror and face potential risks that could damage their business.Directors want to know that a company will be as competitive over time as it is in the short run.

That requires looking beyond the quarterly financial results.Financial reporting of course allows you to understand only a certain slice of a company’s true market capitalization.Consider Coca-Cola: 20% of its market cap can be attributed to its book value, that is, its hard assets.Eighty percent of its value is attributed to intangibles—brand, R&D, risk management, ability to innovate in a globalizing and resource-constrained world—all things that are not captured in a financial statement.

Sustainability reporting focuses squarely on those areas, which businesses traditionally have not done a good job of understanding and managing.

Hoffman When the companies of the United States Climate Action Partnership (USCAP)—businesses including GE, Alcoa, DuPont, and PG&E—announced their call for federal standards on greenhouse gas emissions in January 2007, the Wall Street Journal castigated these “jolly green giants” for acting in their own self-interest in promoting a regulatory program “designed to financially reward companies that reduce CO2 emissions, and punish those that don’t.” But seeking advantage is what companies do.Any company that can foresee business opportunities in influencing carbon-emissions regulation is practicing what is expected of business managers—capitalism.Indeed, any company that sits on the sidelines as policy is formulated is recklessly playing the bystander to a significant shift in its market environment.

Carbon-emissions regulation will burden certain companies, industries, and sectors more than others, and, likewise, will deliver advantage unevenly.Regulatory policy will set the rules of the game that affect how that burden will fall and how advantage will be delivered.At a minimum, all companies should know their carbon footprint—where their emissions are coming from and in what amounts (this may include understanding suppliers’ footprints, too).At the next level, they can take steps to reduce emissions and calculate the costs per ton to make those reductions.

The most advanced companies can parlay that experience into an advisory role with governments, gaining a seat at the table when regulations are designed.BP and Shell, for example, became savvy carbon-emissions traders in advance of any requirements, allowing them to become advisers to policy makers in the European Union.Companies that hope to participate in policy making need to know the answers to two questions: First, what’s on the table (what are the regulatory issues at stake)? And second, where is the table (where are standards being developed)? What’s on the table? To shape policy to your advantage, you must start by monitoring pending regulations and understanding how they may affect your business objectives.That requires being knowledgeable about the relevant language and issues.Here’s a quiz: Do you understand how cap-and-trade programs work or how carbon taxes might be applied? Do you know which of the possible programs under discussion would best serve your company’s interests? Do you have good intelligence on how carbon-emissions permits will be allocated, whether there will be economy-wide or sector-based standards, whether deeper reductions will be expected from upstream or from downstream industries, whether there will be a “safety valve” above which emission prices will not go, and what emissions will be counted (direct, indirect, or both)? Do you know the difference between renewable energy credits, verified emission reductions, certified emission reductions, emission reduction units, and European Union allowances? Do you know how to make deals under the Clean Development Mechanism and the Joint Implementation? If your company doesn’t know the answers, you’re probably ill-prepared to participate in policy development and already missing out on the fast-growing carbon-trading market—one that roughly tripled from $11 billion globally in 2005 to $30 billion in 2006.

Where is the table? Climate-related standards are being set at the state, national, and international levels.Which will become the dominant standard? Answering that question tells you which table to sit at but requires making a calculated guess among an array of possibilities.For example, a company in the New England region of the United States might focus on shaping local policy in the near term and become involved in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic United States.On the West Coast, a company could lobby the California Air Resources Board as it develops mandatory emissions-reporting rules.company could lobby in the 47 states that, according to a July 2007 report, had begun to inventory emissions, developed renewal portfolio standards and climate action plans, or committed to a cap-and-trade system.Thinking more broadly, the firm could lobby at the federal level on one of the more than 100 climate-related bills making their way toward a vote.On the international level, and thinking in the longer term, a company could engage with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as it debates what rules will be established after the Kyoto treaty expires in 2012.Establishing a presence at each of these tables would require tremendous resources.

An efficient alternative is to join one of the many industry or activist groups or trade associations that are weighing in on these myriad negotiations, such as the Chicago Climate Exchange, USCAP, the Pew Center’s Business Environmental Leadership Council, the Global Roundtable on Climate Change, or the World Business Council for Sustainable Development.Participation in such organizations can keep you informed about policy development and give you the tools to help you shape it.Hoffman ([email protected] ) is the Holcim (US) Professor of Sustainable Enterprise and the associate director of the Erb Institute at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor.He is a coauthor, with John Woody, of the forthcoming book Climate Change: What’s Your Business Strategy? (Harvard Business School Press, 2008).

Reputation: When Being Green Backfires by Auden Schendler In the past two years, companies have battled to outdo one another in their high-profile purchases of certificates symbolizing “green” electricity produced by wind, solar power, and other carbon-free, climate-friendly means.The problem is that the buying spree, meant to burnish companies’ green credentials, may end up tarnishing them.Consider this: In January 2006, Whole Foods announced the purchase of renewable energy certificates (RECs) representing the production of 458,000 megawatt hours’ (MWh) worth of green electricity but was soon trumped by Wells Fargo, which bought 550,000 worth.Then Pepsi surged ahead last April with an unprecedented 1.The companies trumpeted their purchases with claims that they “offset” or, in effect, neutralized some of their carbon emissions.I made similar claims when my own company purchased RECs.Anytime there’s a feeding frenzy, you have to ask, What’s so tasty? Why are businesses falling over one another to buy these pieces of paper? Printed by producers of energy each time they generate clean electricity—and then sold to hungry buyers—the certificates merely symbolize green energy.(For more, see the box “How Do Renewable Energy Certificates Work?”) How Do Renewable Energy Certificates Work? When a wind turbine or solar panel generates a megawatt hour of electricity (a little more than an American home uses each month, on average), that clean, carbon-emission-free electricity flows into the utility grid, where it combines with “dirty” electricity produced by fossil-fuel power plants.The producer of that megawatt hour of clean electricity is allowed to print and sell one renewable energy certificate (REC), representing that quantity of clean electricity.

People or organizations can buy that REC, regardless of where they get their electricity or how dirty it is, and claim that their purchase neutralizes some of the carbon emissions created by their electricity use.The problem is that most RECs are merely pieces of paper documenting the generation of electricity by wind farms or other green producers.Such cheap RECs don’t cause clean electricity to be made; they’re an afterthought printed up to bring in additional revenue.As such, most don’t actually offset the buyer’s carbon emissions or reduce the amount of carbon put into the air.

Most businesses will say they’re buying RECs because they care about the environment and climate change.But for many, buying RECs is a relatively inexpensive way to make a powerful brand-positioning statement.In one stroke, a business can don the environmental mantle, seemingly legitimately and at an affordable price, without having to directly and expensively do anything to reduce carbon emissions.

Certainly, corporate reputations have been enhanced by large REC purchases.

The danger in buying RECs is that the mainstream press has begun to challenge claims about their environmental value.Articles have appeared in publications including BusinessWeek and the Financial Times pointing out that most RECs don’t actually offset emissions, and the skepticism is spreading across the Internet.

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Indeed, most RECs don’t result in the creation of clean electricity, which would have been generated anyway, whether or not an REC was printed.As consumers become increasingly savvy about evaluating companies’ environmental claims, businesses that tout REC purchases may expose themselves to charges of greenwashing.A report released in 2006 by an environmental organization called Clean Air–Cool Planet was among the first to rigorously examine the environmental impact of RECs Climate Change and the Chicago Region: Moving Toward a Resilience Framework .   This strategy paper provides recommendations to build climate resilience   that 24-hour13 and seven-day rainfalls14 in the Midwest will double by the   infrastructure design standards will need to be recalibrated to withstand new  .

A report released in 2006 by an environmental organization called Clean Air–Cool Planet was among the first to rigorously examine the environmental impact of RECs.

The report found that while most RECs don’t lead to carbon-emissions reductions, a minority do, by directly helping to finance, say, the construction of a new wind farm.Companies that buy RECs and want to avoid charges of greenwashing should seek out these higher-quality and more costly certificates, whose purchase directly and demonstrably helps reduce carbon emissions.RECs, supporters argue, create a market mechanism that spurs the development of new wind, solar, and other green-electricity plants The document must be set at the US letter or A4 paper size standard. The entire document. (including the notes and references) should be double-spaced with 1-inch (2.5 cm)   the Berghahn Journals House Style Guide, which is based on the Chicago   Uncertainties in Risk Assessment of Anthropogenic Climate Change..RECs, supporters argue, create a market mechanism that spurs the development of new wind, solar, and other green-electricity plants.As demand for RECs grows, their prices will rise, encouraging developers to build more renewable power facilities that can generate income through increasingly profitable sales of the certificates jreference.com/case-study/best-websites-to-purchase-an-west-european-studies-case-study-21-pages-5775-words-10-days-american-high-quality.As demand for RECs grows, their prices will rise, encouraging developers to build more renewable power facilities that can generate income through increasingly profitable sales of the certificates.Unfortunately, because there has been such a surplus of cheap RECs—and no easy way to distinguish between high- and low-quality offerings—the market mechanism has remained stalled for the most part.

If companies, mindful of their reputations, reject inferior RECs and begin demanding quality ones, that could jump-start the production of renewable electricity and actually reduce carbon emissions.Corporate scrutiny and activism might even foster the development of a badly needed tool that could clean up the entire REC industry in one masterstroke: a third-party gold standard for REC quality.Auden Schendler ([email protected] ) is the executive director of community and environmental responsibility at Aspen Skiing in Colorado.Balance Sheet: Accounting for Climate Change: A Window on the Future by Vicki Bakhshi and Alexis Krajeski How will the prospect of climate change affect your business over the medium term? To answer that question, we’ve dreamed up a 2010 consolidated balance sheet for a fictional company.We’ve also imagined that the statement’s notes would detail the impact of climate change on the firm’s fortunes.

The company, based in the southern United States, is a medium-size manufacturer (9,000 employees) that sells electrical components to businesses and, through retailers, lightbulbs and batteries to consumers—a company that in some ways is on the front lines of climate change.To highlight the possible effects of climate-related severe weather, we’ve imagined that the firm was directly affected by the devastating hurricane season of 2005 and is still dealing with the aftereffects.To focus specifically on climate, we’ve had to leave a great deal out of the statement.We’ve concentrated on the three areas most likely to be affected: product portfolios, property assets, and long-term liabilities.Look for the impact on those areas in the explanatory notes.

Consolidated Balance Sheet Notes on the 2010 Consolidated Balance Sheet The Company’s new strategy, unveiled in 2007, capitalizes on the opportunities created by the sharp rise in energy costs and focuses on developing a full range of energy-efficient electrical products.A cornerstone of this strategy is the recently completed acquisition of Malcolm & Angus, an electrical engineering and design firm with an outstanding track record in this area.The acquisition brings new capabilities, forward-looking thinking, and valuable patents to the Company.In addition, the acquisition will help us attract capital from firms seeking green-oriented investments.Assets Cash and cash equivalents In response to rising market demand for energy-saving components and lighting solutions, the Company has shifted to a high-efficiency product portfolio that in 2010 generated strong profit growth.

Cash balances rose sharply as a consequence of strong demand from Wal-Mart and other large retail customers, in particular for our high-efficiency compact fluorescent lighting products.However, the rise in cash was tempered by a steep increase in insurance premiums in the wake of the claims we filed for severe damage to our Biloxi, Mississippi, facilities as a result of the 2005 hurricane season.Accounts receivable Our new energy-efficient product portfolio has enabled us to expand our retail distribution network, leading to a rise in accounts receivable from natural-foods supermarkets, where our solar rechargeable batteries are a top seller.Property and equipment Our Biloxi facility never fully recovered after the 2005 hurricane season, and it was finally closed in 2010, triggering a $38 million write-down to the property account.Our Corpus Christi, Texas, site has been upgraded to ensure greater wind and flood resistance.

We also installed highly efficient HVAC and sensory lighting systems, which will reduce our energy costs, but had to retire our existing HVAC system early, triggering a write-down of $10 million.In 2008, the Company designed its new Atlanta headquarters to meet the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Platinum standard for environmentally sustainable buildings.Although the building had slightly higher up-front costs, the introduction of the U.cap-and-trade system for carbon emissions has, as expected, resulted in a sharp appreciation in the property’s market value.

This has enabled us to obtain a long-term loan to fund the acquisition of Malcolm & Angus that was collateralized by the property, thereby resulting in an increase to long-term assets.We have also announced the phased closure of our now-uneconomic operations in Nashville, Tennessee, and Pensacola, Florida, resulting in 370 job losses and a write-down in plant and equipment of $62 million.We recently purchased a facility in Mexico, where planned efficiency improvements will generate carbon savings that will earn Clean Development Mechanism credits under the new UN rules.Tax credits The 15 wind turbines the Company installed on part of its Corpus Christi site in 2007 are now fully operational and generated surplus electricity that was exported to the grid, thereby earning a production tax credit.Intangibles Liabilities Accounts payable Accounts payable rose because of a generalized growth in trading volumes, as well as the more generous payment terms we have negotiated with our suppliers of incandescent lightbulbs.

With the ban on sales of incandescent lightbulbs already in effect in Australia and going into effect in parts of Canada and elsewhere in coming years, the Company is phasing out in-house manufacture but will still supply incandescents to customers.Accordingly, outsourcing of incandescents lifted accounts payable by $5 million.Pension liabilities The Company’s pension investments, which were heavily exposed to several coal-burning U.electric utilities, suffered serious losses because of the newly enacted cap-and-trade system.

We dismissed our fund managers and replaced them with new managers who are signatories to the UN Principles for Responsible Investment and who actively consider climate change as part of the investment process.Actuarial projections indicate that the Company must contribute $21 million to the pension plan within the next three years.This has been deferred to allow the pension fund to record an immediate $11 million adjustment arising from the closure of the Biloxi plant.Commitments and contingencies In the aftermath of the U.

Supreme Court’s 2007 ruling that greenhouse gases can be considered pollutants under the Clean Air Act, our lawyers have advised us that it would be in shareholders’ interest to negotiate a settlement with the Environmental Protection Agency to resolve any future liability for historical emissions pollution.The settlement is expected to reflect the significant investments the Company has already made to bring its operations in line with best practice, thereby reducing current emissions to a minimum.Strategic change inevitably poses risks, and there may be unforeseen developments in the markets we are entering.Nevertheless, the Company’s senior management team believes it has developed a strategic plan that manages those risks effectively and positions the Company to capture the growth opportunities that we expect will arise as it adjusts to the impact of climate change in its core market.Alexis Krajeski ( [email protected] ) are members of the Governance and Sustainable Investment team at F&C Investments, a London-based asset management group.

Markets: Investors Hunger for Clean Energy by Theodore Roosevelt IV and John Llewellyn Demand is surging among investors, both professional and private, for business ideas that will take advantage of changing views and regulations on greenhouse gases.Because currently there are not enough good projects to jump into, however, it remains largely unmet.Investors have been waking up to the opportunities of the new environmental era over the past several years.Institutions were among the first to put money into sustainable energy companies.Lately, hedge funds—some of which had already entered this space—have aggressively increased their pursuit of environmental investments.

And there has been overwhelming demand from private equity investors and wealthy individuals.Worldwide investments in sustainable energy (including wind, solar, and water power) more than doubled from 2004 to 2006, to $70.9 billion, according to a 2007 report by the United Nations Environment Programme and the firm New Energy Finance.Venture capital and private equity investments in sustainable energy increased by 69% in 2006, to $8.Virtually any firm in any sector can reap the benefits of investors’ growing interest in climate change.Companies that make or sell energy technologies, hybrid cars, insulation products, or any of the thousands of other climate-related products and services have an obvious edge in attracting green capital.However, corporate operations almost always generate greenhouse gases, and investors assume that a price on those emissions is inevitable.If a company can show that it has diversified its energy sources to include those that produce little or no emissions and that it has shrunk its per-employee power use, the capital markets will respond favorably.Another way to attract green investment money is to acquire or take a stake in companies that specialize in clean tech.

Wall Street firms have taken this approach, investing in renewable energy companies.Still, most investors have been unable to find suitable green initiatives.A recent survey showed that fewer than 20% of investors had alternative-energy-focused investments, despite strong interest in this space.To us, that indicates a lack of green investments that meet investors’ requirements.There are several reasons why the demand for green investments outstrips the supply.

Many of the investors who are most intensely interested in climate change don’t want to dilute their investments by putting money into diversified companies—they want their investments to go directly to green technologies or strategies.On the other hand, the diversified companies that have good green businesses, such as solar energy units, often do not want to spin them off because they want to experience all the potential gains they see in those businesses.The desire for green investments is so intense, and the supply currently so limited, that if investors aren’t disciplined, the excess demand could cause a bubble in the future.If such a bubble formed and then burst, the markets might conclude, erroneously, that investing in climate initiatives isn’t a good idea.But so far that is not what we are seeing.

Our interactions with fund managers indicate that the good hedge funds and private equity firms are doing what they’ve always done when approaching an investment—digging down into the details and performing their due diligence.This is why companies have to go about attracting green capital the right way, because even in this new carbon-conscious era, serious investors are continuing to apply all the old rules: The firms they invest in must have good management, be able to execute initiatives well, and be able to make money.The pricing of greenhouse gas emissions will create an economic transformation of the first order, with the potential to be even larger than globalization.Investors now recognize that the impact on the world and national economies will be enormous.The companies that will be the most successful in attracting green capital will be those that share investors’ view of the importance of this change.

Investors will not expect all companies to be experts in climatology, but they will expect every company to see and understand a trend of this magnitude and make sure the firm does not get left behind.Theodore Roosevelt IV is a managing director at Lehman Brothers and the chairman of the firm’s Council on Climate Change.John Llewellyn is a managing director at Lehman Brothers and the firm’s senior economic policy adviser.He is the author of the report “The Business of Climate Change: Issues Arising.

Business to Business: Leading Change in Latin America by Maria Emilia Correa While it may be tempting for companies in developing countries to focus on growth and profits before they even begin to address climate change, our organization is finding that sustainability actually confers competitive advantage.At Masisa, the $886 million forestry and wood-manufacturing company in Chile where I oversee social and environmental responsibility, a key part of our strategy is to engage business-to-business customers in our efforts to become greener.Because the forestry industry faces growing criticism in Latin America and worldwide regarding its impact on the environment, it makes strategic sense for Masisa to differentiate itself in the marketplace not only by reducing its carbon footprint but also by helping others to reduce theirs.So we’re conducting an experiment with our B2B customers: We’re telling them what we’re doing to address climate change and advising them on their efforts, with the double goal of positioning Masisa as a leader in carbon reduction and capitalizing on our enhanced reputation.

According to our market research, our products’ final consumers—people who are remodeling their kitchens or buying new furniture—consider a company’s impact on the environment to be their second priority, right behind product design and durability, when they make purchases.(Three years ago they didn’t even include it among their top ten concerns.) So it stands to reason that the businesses directly serving those customers would want to forge—and publicize—strong relationships with the suppliers that have set the most aggressive carbon-reduction targets.To show how serious we are about reducing emissions, we have joined the Chicago Climate Exchange, which requires us to commit to a 6% decrease by 2010 (measured from a baseline established from 1998 to 2001).

The steps we are taking to reach that goal include planting rapid-growth trees such as pine and eucalyptus in our forests to capture carbon from the atmosphere, burning biomass (sawdust and wood chips left over from sawing and manufacturing) to generate two-thirds of our energy, using combustion gases from thermal plants and boilers as fuel, and optimizing distances between equipment and work areas to decrease overall energy consumption.

Masisa sells its wood boards through Placacentros franchise stores, where carpenters buy what they need to build furniture and to do more extensive work on homes and commercial buildings.There are some 300 Placacentros stores in Latin America, and Masisa is inviting its business partners, the franchisees, to help improve the carbon footprint of its value chain.We start by providing them with basic education, mainly workshops that cover the fundamentals of climate change.Then we suggest ways to identify emission sources and offer ideas for tracking and reduction.Additionally, we demonstrate that certain improvements—such as skylights and energy-efficient equipment—will lower costs.

We are also planning to give the Placacentros marketing materials to share with their customers; these will describe the benefits of using wood instead of cement and steel, for instance, which require more energy to produce and are nonrenewable.Although it is still too early to say how much of an impact our experiment with B2B customers is making directly on revenues, we see signs that it is deepening customer loyalty.This year, as we have renegotiated our franchise agreements, many of our partners have granted us preferred supplier status.They’re telling us it’s because they value the support that Masisa gives them in carbon reduction and other areas where they may be struggling, and because they want to be associated with a brand that is recognized for environmental responsibility as well as product quality and design.Maria Emilia Correa ([email protected] ) is the corporate officer for social and environmental responsibility at Masisa, a forestry and wood-manufacturing company in Santiago, Chile.

Leadership: Walking the Talk at Swiss Re by Mark Way and Britta Rendlen Internal programs to coax employees to reduce their carbon footprints are getting to be commonplace among consumer-facing companies: Clif Bar, Patagonia, Timberland, Google, and Bank of America, to name a few.But is there a business reason why such an initiative might benefit a company that can’t derive consumer-loyalty dividends from it? Swiss Re, an insurer of insurers that is largely unknown to the public, has put its money and muscle behind an incentive program to persuade employees to do such things as drive hybrid cars, use energy-efficient appliances, and install solar panels.The strategic reasons: The company believes that the potentially catastrophic effects of climate change pose a major risk to its industry and its customers, and is committed to combating it.The employee initiative reinforces the firm’s essential message to stakeholders, aligns employees’ actions with company priorities, and shows, to put it simply, that Swiss Re walks the talk.The COYou2 Reduce and Gain program, which also includes educational initiatives such as Lunch & Learn sessions for employees, is an outgrowth of Swiss Re’s almost two-decade-long focus on the risks of climate change.

The company’s four-part climate strategy consists of understanding the risks, developing new products and services to address them, raising risk awareness, and reducing Swiss Re’s own carbon footprint.The latter point has as much relevance as the others: The company would hardly be perceived as a leader in the climate change debate if it did not keep its own house in order.Fostering the company’s credibility is crucial because of the central role that trust plays in its business model.Back in 2003, Swiss Re became the first major financial services provider to pledge to become greenhouse neutral.Swiss Re plans to meet that goal by 2013 through reducing the company’s emissions by 15% per employee and offsetting the remainder with investments in the World Bank’s Community Development Carbon Fund.

COYou2 furthers that commitment by encouraging employees to do their part.The program, launched by CEO Jacques Aigrain in early 2007 and scheduled to run through 2011, is available to employees in 25 countries who have been with the company for at least two years.The company reimburses employees up to 50% for a range of investments made for their personal use.The minimum reimbursement amount is CHF 500, and the cap is CHF 5,000 per employee.(The amounts in other currencies are similar but are adjusted to the local cost of living.

5% of all eligible Swiss Re employees had participated.Mark Way, based in Armonk, New York, is the head of Sustainability Issue Management & Reporting at Swiss Re and part of the company’s Sustainability & Emerging Risk Management unit.Britta Rendlen, based in Zurich, is a senior sustainability adviser with that unit and the project manager of COYou2 Reduce and Gain.Opinion: Place Your Bets on the Future You Want by Forest L.

Reinhardt Which firms will gain and which will lose as governments and businesses begin to take climate change seriously? Corporate balance sheets provide a few clues: As greenhouse gas emissions get costlier, the relative value of such assets as natural gas, which produces less carbon dioxide than coal when burned, will increase.Other clues can be found in firms’ current efforts to reduce emissions: A company’s ability to analyze the trade-offs inherent in initiatives such as cutting overall transportation distances will become highly valuable in a world where the right to emit greenhouse gases is limited.Ultimately, though, success in a carbon-constrained world will be determined not by short-term balance sheet effects or efficiency initiatives but by innovation, management acumen, and leadership.The companies that have seized the big opportunities in changing economic landscapes have been those with bold visions of the future, not necessarily those whose hard assets seemed to position them best for success.No one could have guessed merely by looking at Toyota’s balance sheet in the 1940s or Wal-Mart’s in the 1960s that those firms would so successfully capitalize on globalization.The firms that come out ahead when emissions cost money will be those that make bold moves now, refocusing strategy and operations to take advantage of the opportunities and skirt the dangers raised by the prospect of climate change.Taking bold steps doesn’t just mean chasing after what are sometimes touted as “win-win” solutions, such as quick-payback investments in energy efficiency.Moves like that are obviously necessary, but they aren’t enough by themselves.Companies need to get past the win-win rhetoric and move on to the tough trade-offs.

Many of the climate-related investments a company might make won’t pay for themselves until some other firm is making complementary investments.Alternative-fuel cars need a refueling infrastructure.Specialized facilities that liquefy natural gas for transoceanic shipment are valuable only if there are terminals for off-loading the cargo and turning it back into gas at the other end.And many carbon-reducing investments won’t deliver shareholder value until governments act to make emissions expensive.For centuries, the North Atlantic cod fishery fed millions of people, but there were no property rights controlling access to fish in the sea, so fishermen didn’t treat the resource as scarce.

In the early 1990s, the fishery collapsed.Governments have since established sensible systems of tradable catch permits that seem likely to prevent the collapse of other species, but it was apparently too late to resurrect the cod fishery.The atmosphere’s ability to absorb emissions is now similarly limited, precisely because we thought that could never happen.A system in which we pretend that carbon emissions cost nothing subsidizes, at our children’s expense, every producer and consumer of energy today.

To be efficient, we need to eliminate those subsidies.

Business leaders must be courageous in betting on the long-term future that will benefit their companies the most—that is, on a future where governments constrain, in transparent and reasonable ways, the human impact on the climate.Firms can invest now and participate in voluntary interfirm trading systems to develop expertise in them and show governments, regulators, and the business community how robust such systems can be.Companies can also lobby for governments to implement sensible systems that tax carbon emissions or that cap them and encourage the trading of carbon credits.By betting on the future they want, corporations will make that future all the more likely.

Prudent businesspeople may balk at the idea that they should stick their necks out and, in some cases, act unilaterally on climate change.Inertia and incrementalism amount to big (and risky) bets too—bets that the future won’t be much different from the present.After World War II, the Americans advised Japanese companies to concentrate on labor-intensive, low-value products in which Japan was said to have an advantage.

Instead, the Japanese invested in producing capital-intensive, income-elastic goods such as automobiles and electronic equipment, believing that a critical mass of consumers would eventually get rich enough to buy those products.Had the firms bet wrong, the strategy would have failed.But had they not taken bold steps toward the future they wanted, Japan would have remained poor no matter how the world economy evolved.Companies that might derive short-term benefits from subsidies—for corn-based ethanol, for example, or wind-powered electricity—will be tempted to lobby for them, and the government will undoubtedly find it politically easier to pile subsidy on subsidy rather than tax emissions or establish a coherent cap-and-trade system.But subsidies won’t fix the climate problem, and any business in which subsidies drive profits is not healthy or sustainable.

Strong business leaders should want a transparent system that prices the right to generate carbon emissions as though it were any other scarce resource and lets firms get on with the business of competing.Black Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School in Boston.A version of this article appeared in the October 2007 issue of Harvard Business Review.