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Always look out for flaws in arguments – and that includes your own.Photograph: Alamy As the government begins its crackdown on essay mill websites, it’s easy to see just how much pressure students are under to get top grades for their coursework these days.
But writing a high-scoring paper doesn’t need to be complicated Need to buy a custom case study archeology US Letter Size 121 pages / 33275 words CBE American.But writing a high-scoring paper doesn’t need to be complicated.
We spoke to experts to get some simple techniques that will raise your writing game.Tim Squirrell is a PhD student at the University of Edinburgh, and is teaching for the first time this year.When he was asked to deliver sessions on the art of essay-writing, he decided to publish a comprehensive (and brilliant) blog on the topic, offering wisdom gleaned from turning out two or three essays a week for his own undergraduate degree.“It took me until my second or third year at Cambridge to work it out jreference.com/presentation/best-website-to-purchase-a-statistics-presentation-standard-double-spaced-harvard-high-quality.“It took me until my second or third year at Cambridge to work it out.No one tells you how to put together an argument and push yourself from a 60 to a 70, but once you to get grips with how you’re meant to construct them, it’s simple.” 'I felt guilty when I got my results': your stories of buying essays | Guardian readers and Sarah Marsh Read more Poke holes The goal of writing any essay is to show that you can think critically about the material at hand (whatever it may be).This means going beyond regurgitating what you’ve read; if you’re just repeating other people’s arguments, you’re never going to trouble the upper end of the marking scale.
“You need to be using your higher cognitive abilities,” says Bryan Greetham, author of the bestselling How to Write Better Essays.
“You’re not just showing understanding and recall, but analysing and synthesising ideas from different sources, then critically evaluating them.” But what does critical evaluation actually look like? According to Squirrell, it’s simple: you need to “poke holes” in the texts you’re exploring and work out the ways in which “the authors aren’t perfect”.“That can be an intimidating idea,” he says.“You’re reading something that someone has probably spent their career studying, so how can you, as an undergraduate, critique it? “The answer is that you’re not going to discover some gaping flaw in Foucault’s History of Sexuality Volume 3, but you are going to be able to say: ‘There are issues with these certain accounts, here is how you might resolve those’.
That’s the difference between a 60-something essay and a 70-something essay.” Critique your own arguments Once you’ve cast a critical eye over the texts, you should turn it back on your own arguments.This may feel like going against the grain of what you’ve learned about writing academic essays, but it’s the key to drawing out developed points.“We’re taught at an early age to present both sides of the argument,” Squirrell continues.“Then you get to university and you’re told to present one side of the argument and sustain it throughout the piece.
But that’s not quite it: you need to figure out what the strongest objections to your own argument would be.Write them and try to respond to them, so you become aware of flaws in your reasoning.Every argument has its limits and if you can try and explore those, the markers will often reward that.” Applying to university? It's time to narrow your choices down to two Read more Fine, use Wikipedia then The use of Wikipedia for research is a controversial topic among academics, with many advising their students to stay away from the site altogether.“I genuinely disagree,” says Squirrell.
“Those on the other side say that you can’t know who has written it, what they had in mind, what their biases are.But if you’re just trying to get a handle on a subject, or you want to find a scattering of secondary sources, it can be quite useful.I would only recommend it as either a primer or a last resort, but it does have its place.” Focus your reading Reading lists can be a hindrance as well as a help.They should be your first port of call for guidance, but they aren’t to-do lists.
A book may be listed, but that doesn’t mean you need to absorb the whole thing.Squirrell advises reading the introduction and conclusion and a relevant chapter but no more.“Otherwise you won’t actually get anything out of it because you’re trying to plough your way through a 300-page monograph,” he says.You also need to store the information you’re gathering in a helpful, systematic way.Bryan Greetham recommends a digital update of his old-school “project box” approach.
“I have a box to catch all of those small things – a figure, a quotation, something interesting someone says – I’ll write them down and put them in the box so I don’t lose them.Then when I come to write, I have all of my material.” There are a plenty of online offerings to help with this, such as the project management app Scrivener and referencing tool Zotero, and, for the procrastinators, there are productivity programmes like Self Control, which allow users to block certain websites from their computers for a set period.Essays for sale: the booming online industry in writing academic work to order Read more Look beyond the reading list “This is comparatively easy to do,” says Squirrell.“Look at the citations used in the text, put them in Google Scholar, read the abstracts and decide whether they’re worth reading.
Then you can look on Google Scholar at other papers that have cited the work you’re writing about – some of those will be useful.” And finally, the introduction The old trick of dealing with your introduction last is common knowledge, but it seems few have really mastered the art of writing an effective opener.“Introductions are the easiest things in the world to get right and nobody does it properly,” Squirrel says.“It should be ‘Here is the argument I am going to make, I am going to substantiate this with three or four strands of argumentation, drawing upon these theorists, who say these things, and I will conclude with some thoughts on this area and how it might clarify our understanding of this phenomenon.
’ You should be able to encapsulate it in 100 words or so.” Keep up with the latest on Guardian Students: follow us on Twitter at @GdnStudents – and become a member to receive exclusive benefits and our weekly newsletter.Topics This is part of a new and ongoing series called Thor’s Day Cultural Resource Management Archaeology Hacks.
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Quick as lightning, these tips are designed to help you make the impact of Mj lnir on your next project.
) Proper archaeology is synonymous with writing.If we didn’t write stuff down, archaeology and the cultural resource management industry wouldn’t be much better than American Diggers Undergraduate Certificate in Archaeology Oxford University nbsp.If we didn’t write stuff down, archaeology and the cultural resource management industry wouldn’t be much better than American Diggers.
Unfortunately, writing clearly and logically is something archaeology is not known for.I frequently see journal articles and cultural resource management archaeology reports bloated with lofty prose, jargon-laden sentences, and spineless statements written in a voice so passive it makes me wonder how the author decides which pair of pants they should wear in the morning.None of this makes it easy for non-archaeologists to understand what we do; thus, the intellectual chasm between our profession and the rest of society continues to grow 29 Aug 2017 - It took me a good few days before I put any sort of substantial wording down on Most archaeology students, myself included, write about original research, Nothing is ever completely perfect, theses included. Step 9. Start writing. All you have to do is get a few words down and the rest will start flowing..
None of this makes it easy for non-archaeologists to understand what we do; thus, the intellectual chasm between our profession and the rest of society continues to grow.
Cultural resource management reports are no different than academic writing in this respect where to get a political sciences dissertation 8 hours US Letter Size 48 pages / 13200 words.Cultural resource management reports are no different than academic writing in this respect.Unlike most journal article authors, CRMers have a lot of shoes to fill with every single report jreference.com/dissertation/where-to-get-a-political-sciences-dissertation-8-hours-us-letter-size-48-pages-13200-words-without-plagiarism.Unlike most journal article authors, CRMers have a lot of shoes to fill with every single report.We have to fulfill client obligations, regulatory strictures, and, most importantly, stay true to our ethical duty to conduct archaeological research.It takes experience and creativity to accomplish all of these goals while also making a profit from our services.
Clear, logical technical writing is the only way the goals of CRM can address all of these needs.
I have previously talked about constructing logical paragraphs, which are the foundation of logical essays; however, these logical paragraphs will not make sense if they are not composed of clear sentences.All of the problems I’ve ever had with my writing came from an inability to write clearly.Quality, clear, direct sentence composition is the only way we can combat unclear writing.Write as if you are explaining what you did to a fourth grader I was once told by one of my former bosses—a CRM principal investigator with over 25 years of report-writing experience—that I should write every single sentence as if I was trying to explain my project and its results to a nine-year-old.She explained that a fourth grader’s reading vocabulary was more than adequate to explain cultural resource management archaeology and would make our writing assessable to all non-archaeologist adults.
Also, writing at this level made it more likely that our clients would actually read a large portion of the report instead of just glancing at the “Recommendations” section before calling us to explain.( She also fantasized about a time when CRM reports could be made entirely of pictures, like a comic book, so it would be easier and more engaging for our clients to read but we’re not going there.) This tip, along with embracing the hamburger technique, changed the way I wrote and the way I thought about written communication.Further enlightenment came from another boss who told me I should always be thinking of a way to eliminate the word “of” from every report.He believed that focusing on the elimination of the word “of” would almost force me to write in active voice, which is the preferred voice for academic/research writing.
This exercise also simplifies your sentences, moving them closer to fourth grade competency, and makes your writing much clearer.I could continue with anecdotal evidence of how we can all clarify our writing, but I don’t have to because the good folks at the University of Wisconsin-Madison’s Writing Center have done most of the heavy lifting for me.Their webpage on “Writing Clear Concise Sentences” does a much better job explaining how we can all benefit from writing clearly.They have 10 basic tips that you can download as a free PDF, but I just want to address the four biggest violations I see most frequently in cultural resource management reports: 1) Put wordy phrases on a diet: Wordy phrases are unclear and sound weak.They are hard to read, making your audience strain to understand what you’re trying to say.
They almost always move you away from active voice (Notice how the phrase “almost always” in the previous sentence makes it sound weaker and less definitive i.less clear ? That’s because those words are not necessary for me to convey what I’m trying to say.) They confuse perfectly clear statements.The key is to know what you want to say and write it as directly as possible.
“ We identified 12 prehistoric artifact concentrations,” is much better than, “ During the course of our week-long field investigation, 12 prehistoric artifact concentrations were identified by the field crew.” Your client doesn’t care how long you were out there, unless you went over budget, or who identified what.2 ) Don’t start sentences with expletive constructions: What’s an expletive construction? I didn’t know either until I looked at the UWisconsin website.
Expletive constructions are phrases like, “there are”, “it is,” “it was,” “one might,” ect.Oftentimes, a version of the verb “to be” is involved.Expletive constructions make every sentence they touch weak and obscured.They make it difficult to identify the sentence’s subject, which makes it confusing.Your sentences will be much clearer after you’ve eliminated them.If you can’t use expletives in what you’re writing, you shouldn’t use expletive constructions either.3) Use active voice as much as possible: Archaeology is practiced in the present but we report on the past.This means a lot of our sentences explain things that happen in the past tense.Also, we are rarely 100% sure of our findings so we have to find ways around making statements that are not true.
The problem is: Using all that past tense and having to parse our words can move our writing into passive voice (i.Active voice is when the subject of a sentence it what is performing the action.Starting sentences with expletive constructions is a major source of archaeology writing that isn’t in active voice.
If your subject is obscured with unnecessary words, how can you expect your reader to find the subject of that sentence without digging deeper? How can you expect your reader to expend extra effort just to figure out what you’re saying? The answer: They aren’t.Your reader is not going to spend one single iota of effort to figure out a passive, unclear sentence.
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You can still write recommendations, conclusions, and summaries in active voice even if you cannot be 100% sure of what happened in the past.Rather than hedging your bets with sentences in passive voice, ( Perhaps, the establishment of a settlement in the project area might have been the result of seasonal transitions between salmon harvesting and camas root harvesting loci.) just say what you know and leave it at that ( The settlement in the project area is similar to archaeological sites associated with salmon and camas collection Best websites to purchase college case study archeology originality APA two hours Undergrad. (yrs 1-2) American.
) just say what you know and leave it at that ( The settlement in the project area is similar to archaeological sites associated with salmon and camas collection.
) Anyone that reads your writing will thank you for sticking with active voice throughout your report.Passive voice is for poems, Facebook posts, and other informal writing forms.Active voice rules the day for everything else.4) Never, ever use unnecessarily inflated words: Fourth graders do not know the meaning of obfuscation.
Or, bioturbation… Why use a $100 word when a $5 one will do? Using big words does not make you look smart.It actually makes you look like you’re too dumb to know your audience.If a fourth-grader doesn’t understand it, don’t use that word.
I understand that archaeology requires technical terms, also known as jargon, but we don’t have to make our sentences unreadable by using obscure nouns and verbs; or, even worse, creating obnoxious jargon chains.Jargony writing is an immediate turn-off.Your client won’t even want to use your report as toilet paper because they won’t want to touch it at all, let alone read it.Don’t use jargon unless it is absolutely, absolutely necessary.Getting your reports slashed with red ink is an experience I would like to spare you.Who am I to give you advice on cultural resource management report writing? If you’ve read my blog posts or eBooks, you’ve probably never seen me write a proper “journalese” sentence.Why would you trust someone that writes as poorly as I do? I learned how to read from my mother, learned how to write proper sentences in middle school, and wrote some stuff that won awards in college; but, I learned how to write reports as a cultural resource management archaeologist.I didn’t know any of this stuff until I had to write, on command, for a living.
There’s something about knowing if you don’t learn how to write well enough, you aren’t going to be able to pay your bills that makes you grow as a writer.My writing has evolved over the years out of necessity.In the past, supervisors and editors have ravaged me like a hobo on a ham sandwich.They cut deep with red ink, making so many comments the paper looked like Jack the Ripper had gone wild.Coming to work and seeing a draft report with the words “DO OVER” scrawled on the front cover in brilliant red ink is nothing to write home about.
In the beginning, I used to get depressed with how badly I was getting scrutinized.I eventually realized I was getting better and, even though the comments/edits were still intense, I was no longer making the same mistakes anymore.Comments on my grammar, sentence structure, and mechanics were replaced by edits regarding the logic and clarity of my statements.Eventually, my supervisors were commenting on how to properly apply archaeological method and theory to regulatory strictures.
I still get edits, but they are more about content rather than grammar.Learning how to write clearly and logically is the best thing we can do to help further the public’s understanding of archaeology.As someone that has been bludgeoned by editors, I offer my advice freely.It is based on experience, trial, and error.You can take it or leave it, but don’t say I never gave you anything.
Write a comment below if you want to join the discussion or send me an email.Having trouble finding work in cultural resource management archaeology? Still blindly mailing out resumes and waiting for a response? Has your archaeology career plateaued and you don’t know what to do about it? Download a copy of the new book “ Becoming an Archaeologist: Crafting a Career in Cultural Resource Management” Click here to learn more.Introduction The Day of Archaeology is an event where archaeologists write about their activities on a group blog.The event started in 2011 and aims to 'provide a window into the daily lives of archaeologists from all over the world'.Currently there are over 1000 posts on the blog, rather a lot to read in one sitting.
Rather than closely read each post, we can do a distant reading to get some insights into the corpus.Distant reading is a term advocated by Franco Moretti to refer to efforts to understand texts through quantitative analysis and visualisation.A quantitative method that has recently become popular for distant reading is topic modelling.To get some insights into what all these archaeologists were writing about, I've generated a topic model to find the most important themes amongst the posts.By browsing the topics I can see what they key ideas are without having to read every word of every post.
This approach is inspired by Matt Jockers' analysis of the 2010 Day of Digital Humanities blog posts, and Shawn Graham, who did a similar analysis of the 2011 Day of Archaeology blog posts and has also written an accessible introduction to topic modelling.The questions I'm attempting to answer with this distant reading include: what is a typical day for an archaeologist? What are the different kinds of day that are represented in this collection? Do all archaeologists have generally similar days or not? As an archaeologist also I'm curious to see how my day compares with others! Method My method uses the R programming language and a few external tools, most notably MALLET.The method should be completely reproducible using the code in this repository (go ahead and try it! If you're coming to R for the first time, I recommend using R with RStudio).Here's a quick summary of the process, do inspect the code for more details.First, I scraped the site to get the links to the full text of each post (because the front and subsequent pages of the main site only give a snippet of text as a teaser).
The blog has a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License which means we are free to copy, share and remix the blog contents, provided we give proper attribution (did I mention all of this is coming from ?) and make the results available with the same or similar licence (I use the MIT licence for this repository, which is similar).Second, I pulled the full text from each post, along with the name of the author and the date The Day of Archaeology is an event where archaeologists write about their activities on a group blog. similar analysis of the 2011 Day of Archaeology blog posts and has also written an in case you want to browse or do other analyses. history social academic institute teaching writing australia dissertation living egypt .Second, I pulled the full text from each post, along with the name of the author and the date.
Third, I cleaned the text to remove unusual characters and formatting.
Fourth, I generated a topic model using the latent Dirchlet allocation algorithm implemented MALLET (it's much faster that the pure R methods).
I arbitrarily set the number of topics at 30 and generated one model with all posts from 2012-2013.Fifth, I computed a similarity matrix for the authors of each post based on the mixture of topics in each author's post.Sixth, I computed a k-means cluster analysis to assign each author into a group, based on the topics detected in their post.Seventh, I visualised the groups of authors with a network graph.Each step of the method has a corresponding file of R code in this repository.
Results I've put all the scraped data in a csv file here (right-click -> save link as.) in case you want to browse or do other analyses.The csv file contains the full text of each post, the name of the author, the date of publication and the URL of the post.Summary of the corpus In the 2012-2013 corpus there are a total of 352,558 words in 622 blog posts by 370 unique authors (as of 5pm EST 28 July 2013, a few more posts trickled in after this time, but this analysis is a weekend project, so it stops on a Sunday evening).The author count is probably an underestimate as some posts (like this very long one) are written by multiple people using a common affiliation as the author name.
There were fewer posts in 2013 (n = 273) compared to 2012 (n = 348), but the average length of the posts is slightly higher in 2013 (mean = 591) compared to 2012 (mean = 549).Here's a plot of the distribution of words per post by year: Summary of the topic model Here are 50 key words for the 30 topics generated by the LDA model: > 1 "excavation field area stone features ground excavations tools soil excavated test discovered campus feature involved surface high late story rock bone level dating pit pits areas natural source survey structures photo forms excavate excavating flint larger located deposits open fragments trowel clear difficult geophysical floor image entire buried filled allowed" 2 "field archaeologists past school professional interested ferry understanding favorite knowledge washington skills public farm individuals topic director communication screen interests responsibility profession experiences single popular article artifacts engage professionals macedonia academic real participation archeology band digs semester shows scientific future diversity enjoyed vcu unit sit civil pseudoarchaeology washington dig responsibilities" 3 "past cemetery landscape learn understand human questions interested modern interest ceramics lab early understanding water archaeologists places identify enjoy animal record techniques bones common simply methods personal southern types lost studying simple reason helps program ceramic lives lack collecting communities othe lived step properly inside kids property locations surveying question" 4 "digital access open archaeologists archive ads database online content reports director app text images center media free video system community linked library grey files visual literature metadata punk toronto scarf web order articles mobile videos create adding file mukurtu thousands cultural platform image publication dead filemaker databases edit asi created" 5 "shelf " laarc gallery objects s archive number " center lottery « .suggested orange object completely metal registered piece dayofarch s environmental discover random store border solid width tweet margin auto float margin-top text-align img cfcfcf margin-left " .
we medieval excavated london message textile holds " 6 "rcahms copyright scotland survey chosen built aerial ordnance stone castle database crown favourite historic landscape north twitter photographs view scottish loch fort record park south east images west wall water buildings structures photograph place myarchaeology.canmore recorded visit revealed remains monuments timber image people history island stones century cropmarks location" 7 "cat circus making desk bag fort centre dig observatory urns click colchester house hat green cans uppsala unit system cremation contents high article mining ice common garden yellow editor utah cwa regular session magazine friend captains folkestone auckland hold renovation army avoid newsletter care drop warm military sardine taylor baseball" 8 "museum objects display finds exhibition object museums coins treasure metal history antiquities coin silver database hoard scheme material social british casts case cases interested items detecting stolen classical looting tile temporary create gold market pas museum north hertfordshire gallery portable conservation finder looted hitchin preserved story cast stories pot vessel" 9 "shropshire hoard war space community bristol royalist detectorists bitterley veterans military graffiti county indigenous civil shrewsbury march garrison northern south army territory communities ludlow contemporary earth parliamentarian wem paid country family worth spacecraft nter jawoyn club force aboriginal parliamentarians brampton similar system support significant messages men castle rights relic cavalry" 10 "students community school dig volunteers student children learning people archaeologists visitors experience past involved history open events undergraduate learn training education workshops skills typical schools questions town activity weeks learned outreach science friends planning educational silchester class tour workshop pottery college gave talks teaching participants placement aim tours teach contribute" 11 "historic planning environment county wright vitaemilia policy law council conservation ireland committee protection issues commercial dayofarch government means rescue potential dayofarch knowledge development board impact resources client records carried developer officers interest process buildings july works practice natural early national remains monitoring organisations sector officer sweden significance standards money organisation" 12 "des une arch sur est pour dans qui nous pr ologie avec par mon journ moyen fouille inrap gallery int aux vous occupation cette diagnostic m me aussi donn ont fait muller-pelletier sols ologues ologique lors exceptionnelle ces si vie ils carine scientifique sont vestiges tre couverte viarmes ch large questions" 13 "people it years world things lot interesting reading read blog write means don posts book head fun point can didn list weeks fact ago career books share called degree ideas pieces position you kind stuff context they thinking huge moving issues fit historical sitting resources person phd happened play talk" 14 "house remains century years land houses area gardens bones family middle small brown occupied called ancient bottom industrial lake fields conditions sample garden base and living council estate church child cut destruction remaining teeth town college salt thin britain sea point farm fine green trees shown deposit market reach chapel" 15 "material collection finds collections age excavations records artefacts iron years early excavated record pottery small late boxes box range archives publication archive ago storage store documents drawings modern original individual colleague technology documentation created bronze assistant task extensive building published making researchers began remains hill photograph centre collected catalogue town" 16 "ancient museum cultural conference history social academic institute teaching writing australia dissertation living egypt city department society culture early museums focused western published funding web science european past human discipline mentioned egyptian southern sciences interested eastern tomb humanities trip associate fellowship oxford universities included relevant professor on-line places materials world" 17 "interesting norfolk mola centre talk programme colleague range wood visitor festival landscape dating assemblage building neolithic closely timbers lottery anglo-saxon species grave england services involved fund coastal cba hearth senior discussion review waterlogged flots bone identification reminded specialists scotland csi radiocarbon action thames manager artist crannog graves offer specialist biggest" 18 "glass century assemblage cave island leather early mosaic interesting we fragments white ireland nails shoe beautiful preserved discovery vessel wild norse end mountains opening covered bowl vessels bay galway shoes visible quarters piece common colleague degrees share flood imagine ale lion segni sides harbour men drawing french economic dublin roads" 19 "building medieval digging buildings city small trench finds crew construction excavating walls early dig hot built wall dug road lots street hole top urban inside weeks water brick library close heat town pottery fill samples deep food dates record pot block dark basement complex cleaning trenches experienced materials nearby pipe" 20 "war camp world monuments john british battle institute italy rome statue memorial evans faraday spain photos knossos italian malta command cambridge half fig bomber papers figures gave monument raf shells doa involvement spanish boat shamanic latin neolithic materials activity idea campaign crete negatives monticello pow tests japanese palatine copenhagen ioa" 21 "museum mound grave west creek curator complex facility group making stones corn garden native tour display interpretive manchester days incised volunteers program gift room library consists culture museum.slide documentary gcmac trays view flint burial film educational moundsville delf norona shop educator beads displays square visitors wonderful papers check care" 22 "age church medieval bronze idaho iron palace ireland village early churches burials end burial farm national exmoor identified london coffin sandpoint post-medieval cist cremation land parish viking stepney close houses population peat valley happy green skeleton surrounded swca holy horse symbolic mola live mound spread boundary wooden moorland peterborough appaloosa" 23 "che arqueologia archaeology oday projeto dei montescudaio sambaqui progetto archeologia uma con modo delle all sono cubat layer pi medievale montecorvino gli archeologi attraverso mio elementi pisa baldassarri post video cad museu prof sul virtual dell sia questo lavorare naturalmente essere disegno bassa material autocad base file vital joinville stico" 24 "conservation models wessex pitt rivers lab model wiltshire south large salisbury figurines excavated wood service areas plaster scanning maritime damage space materials equipment operation condition wreck paint cleaned surface general shopping treatment remove conserving imaging diving skeleton cleaning protected corrosion aim underwater scale fragile nightingale gallery heavy camera wooden loose" 25 "it week we office bit days morning writing started start things check process archaeologists spend that recording lot full afternoon hours couple london pretty main short small end finished ready final finally call don half idea leave computer emails friday yesterday lunch current there tea lots running you making finish" 26 "phd human student bones ???atalh samples deer pottery bone turkey thesis worcester cake cardiff residues animal room neolithic collaboration difficult animals hut faunal close worcestershire jaffa jebel writing suggested slag pots hive fallow bronze favourite supportive materials huge hike peak isotope analysing smith published phds fellow changing activity laboratory researcher" 27 "survey gis record database understand aerial recording records laser maps wales photography photographic systems total world techniques form spatial film cross trees multiple tables english discussion hill processing leader landscapes valley involved software station scanner avon tree yorkshire field system relevant norwegian and fields medieval structure context generally computers entered" 28 "los para por las con m ¡s arqueolog como arque day trabajo proyecto arqueol desde este pero sobre expressly stated licensed creative commons attribution-sharealike unported license logos muy todo mallou hist nos hoy patrimonio ser ver hora tiempo tengo dayofarch entre historia as tambi madrid video dos grupo vez soy logo" 29 "artifacts historic state historical public national park cultural arkansas lab history survey resources program african graduate philadelphia preservation pennsylvania unit states society native united artifact archeological county materials portion camp center property crm exhibit foundation bridge education century outreach findings station laboratory equipment curation assistant teach document americans preserve south" 30 "day work time project creative licensed commons stated license expressly attribution-sharealike unported working today year heritage archaeologist find local team job projects life post important public spent large group including report place number fieldwork exciting staff visit set july future members provide colleagues hard based present worked plan management reports" It should be pretty obvious that these topics are generated by a probabilistic algorithm rather than carefully organised by a person.For example, medieval churches and Idaho in topic 22 and the cat circus in topic 7 are rather dissonant combinations.However, many of the topics seem quite distinctive and coherent, such as 4, 6, and 20.
A few topics seem to make sense as mixtures or chimera topics, suggesting that a slightly higher number of topics might be more appropriate.Topic 25 is like an eerily garbled telegraphic text message from an unfortunate archaeologist chained to a desk (and is similar to Graham's topic 17 from 2012).Topics 28 and 30 are colophon topics dominated by the license that is attached to each post.With additional effort and time, such as analysing topic diagnostics and excluding more stopwords and non-noun parts of speech we may be able to refine the topic model.Basic validation of the model We can validate the model to a basic degree by closely reading a tiny random sample of the corpus to see if the model's classifications seem accurate.
For example, here we can see the mixture of topics in the posts by my friend and colleague Jacq Matthews: That seems pretty good, Jacq's 2012 post was about field work and her duties as an officer of the Australian Archaeological Association, while her 2013 post is more about social sciences and global cultural heritage.A good classification, with high proportions of topic 24 that includes models, camera, figurines and equipment and topic 27 with survey, GIS and photography.And here we can see that Sarah Bennett, an archaeologist in Florida, made quite different posts in each year: Sarah's 2013 post is about volunteers cleaning up a historic cemetery, which is nicely captured by topic 3.Topic 29 reflects the public volunteer aspect of the post.Sarah's 2012 post is about the excavation of a shell midden, clearly indicated by a high proportions of topic 1 and 20.
Topic 20 is interesting because it seems mostly to be about the archaeology of war.We see 'shell' and 'shells' in topic 20 between the algorithm hasn't been able to distinguish between shells you eat and other kinds of shells (bombs, wrecked buildings, etc.While the topic model has a few comical and naive moments, my informal and brief validation indicates that it is clearly not complete nonsense and is credible as a representation of the corpus.Note that each time you replicate the generation of this model you get slightly different topics because of the probabilistic nature of topic modelling.
Visualisation of similar topics To get a sense of relationships amongst the topics we can visualize a hierarchical clustering of topics.Here we can see that the museum topics tend to form a group distinct from the others.Excavation and field archaeology form a high-level cluster as well as regional historical archaeology topics (on the far right).The majority of topics are quite similar to each other.Comparison of topics in 2012 and 2013 We can get an impression of the shift in topics from 2012 to 2013 by comparing the average proportions of each topic across all documents for each year.
The five topics that are the most different are 12, 28, 6, 18 and 23.Topics 12, 23 and 28 are non-English language topics, suggesting are greater international contribution in 2013.Topic 6 seems to reflect the large number of posts in 2013 by or about archaeologists working with the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland.Groups of similar authors Now that we've established the credibility of the topic model, we can look at how authors group together according to the mixtures of topics in their posts.This is provided as a community service so people can discover who is writing about similar topics.
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Here are the groups of authors I get after a k-means analysis on topic proportions.I arbitrarily set the number of groups at 30 (you can run the code yourself and change the number to see what happens).With additional effort we could algorithmically determine the optimum number of groups Who can help me write my case study archeology A4 (British/European) British Chicago/Turabian 7 days.With additional effort we could algorithmically determine the optimum number of groups.
If there is a number after the name it's because that author has more than one post on the blog.
Reassuringly, most of the time we see multiple posts by the same author in the same cluster Order an archeology case study at an affordable price Platinum MLA American Writing.
Reassuringly, most of the time we see multiple posts by the same author in the same cluster.
Although we saw above that it's not always the case that one author writes about the same general mix of topics in their posts Order an archeology case study at an affordable price Platinum MLA American Writing.Although we saw above that it's not always the case that one author writes about the same general mix of topics in their posts.1 1 "sarah may1" "Claire Bradshaw" "MOLA.1" 10 "Karen Stewart" 2 1 "Laracuente" "Declan Moore (Moore Group)" 3 "Emily Wright" "Kelly Powell" 5 "JamesAlbone" "David Gurney" 7 "Helen Wells" "Ian Richardson" 9 "Paul McCulloch" "MOLA help me write my college trade homework 12 hours 126 pages / 34650 words US Letter Size.1" 10 "Karen Stewart" 2 1 "Laracuente" "Declan Moore (Moore Group)" 3 "Emily Wright" "Kelly Powell" 5 "JamesAlbone" "David Gurney" 7 "Helen Wells" "Ian Richardson" 9 "Paul McCulloch" "MOLA.2" "Dan Hull" 13 "ChrisCumberpatch" "Charles Mount" 15 " " "Laura Belton" 17 "Robin Standring" "Michelle Touton" 19 "Emily Wright.
1" 21 "Giles Carey" "Roman Baths Museum.1" 23 "Manda Forster" "Magnus Reuterdahl.1" 3 1 "Stephen Kay" "Caroline Goodson" "Alexandra Knox" 4 "dberryman" "Valentina" "MOLA.9" "michigan" "Zsolt Magyar" 10 "Marcel Cornellissen" "dberryman.1" 6 "Francesco Ripanti" 7 "David Gurney.4" 8 "Amesemi" 9 "Italian National Association of Archaeologists" 10 "edlyne" 11 "AMTTA" 12 "ffion" 13 "The Gabii Project" 14 "Stefano Costa.1" 15 "William Hafford" 16 "brennawalks" 17 "David Gill" 18 "lofttroll" 19 "Henriette Roued-Cunliffe.2" 6 1 "carmean" "Rachael Sparks" "Heather Sebire" 4 "Amanda Brooks" "Heather Cline" "sdhaddow" 7 "Manchester Museum" "Steve Compston" "Martin Lominy" 10 "mcarra" "David E.
2" "Andrew Kirkland" 16 "Amanda Brooks.1" 7 1 "Susan Greaney" "Bolton Library and Museum Services" 3 "Sarah JaneHarknett.
1" 7 "Craig Barker" "Julie Cassidy" 9 "Laura Burnett.2" "Candace Richards" 8 1 "cristiana" "cristiana.1" "Jaime Almansa S nchez" 4 "Khawla Goussous" "cartvol.
4" "archscotland" 7 "Cara Jones" "Lorna Richardson.1" 9 1 "Kevin Wooldridge" "David Standing" 3 "Jonathan Haller" "Kayt Armstrong" 5 "clydeandavon" "clydeandavon.1" 9 "Chiz Harward (Urban Archaeology)" "Jenny Ryder" 11 "RCAHMS.24" "Rosalind Buck" 13 "Cathy Dagg" "MOLA.11" 15 "Chris Green" "Aerial-Cam" 17 "ArcheoWebby.1" "popefinn" 19 "Paul" "Tom Goskar" 21 "Serra Head.2" 10 1 "Lorna Richardson" "ArcheoWebby" "Sophie Hay" 4 "saraperry" "David Howell" "Kayt Armstrong.1" 7 "Susan Johnston" "Don Henson" "Francesca Tronchin" 10 "Don Henson.25" "Kristina Killgrove" 11 1 "Brian Kerr" "bajrjobs" "MOLA" 4 "Dawn McLaren" "Somayyeh Mottaghi" "Lorna Richardson.1" 7 "Dana Goodburn-Brown" "James Morris" "Dana Goodburn-Brown.2" 10 "Mike Heyworth" "Anne Crone" 12 1 "sclements" "Cath Poucher" "cartvol.2" 4 "Carole Bancroft-Turner" "Megan Rowland" "Jaime Almansa S nchez.1" "Sarah MacLean" 13 1 "Chris Constable" "Guy Hunt" "Spencer Gavin Smith" 4 "Helen Williams" "Alice Kershaw" "Rena MacGuire" 7 "Rachel Ives.43" 15 1 "archaeologicalresearchcollective" "Tamira" 3 "cartvol.6" 16 1 "Sandra LozanoRubio" "Rmadgwick" "Sandra LozanoRubio.
1" 4 "Tim Young" "Scott Haddow" 17 1 "Ralph Mills" "cartvol" "cartvol.3" 10 "Dave Wilton" " " "IUSB PAFS" 13 "MOLA.
1" "Colleen Morgan" 18 1 "Molly Swords" "MOLA.16" "Laura Puolamaki" 5 "Exmoorhistoricenvironment" "Molly Swords.1" 7 "Mary Petrich-Guy" "Dot Boughton" 9 "Asa M Larsson" "Rachel Ives" 19 1 "Waveney ValleyCommunityArchaeologyGroup" 2 "Glynis Irwin" 3 "David E.Rotenizer" 4 "rbakerarae" 5 "Keneiloe Molopyane" 6 "Beth Pruitt" 7 "Grace Krause" 8 "Gail Boyle" 9 "Sarah Bennett" 10 "Thiago Fossile" 11 "Peter Reavill" 12 "Scott Clark" 13 "Lancaster Williams" 14 "Jaime Almansa S nchez.
2" 16 "David Garcia Casas" 17 "Christine Morris" 18 "" 19 "Magnus Reuterdahl" 20 "April Beisaw" 21 "Tricia Jarratt" 22 "Anthroprobably" 23 "diacarco" 24 "EAAPP" 25 "Pedro MoyaMaleno" 26 "RCAHMS.3" 28 "Briana Pobiner" 29 "jbarnes9" 30 "David Gurney.1" 31 "Helen Keremedjiev" 32 "Bernard K.
Means" 33 "Kelly Abbott" 34 "Charlotte Douglas" 35 "Manchester Museum.
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1" 40 "drspacejunk" 41 "angela middleton" 42 "Sebastian Foxley" 43 "Kelly Abbott.
2" 47 "Michelle Zupan" 48 "magago" 49 "RCAHMS.29" 52 "Giuliano De Felice" 53 "ArchaeoAD" 54 "Becky Wragg Sykes" 55 "Daniel Pett" 56 "Lorna Richardson .29" 52 "Giuliano De Felice" 53 "ArchaeoAD" 54 "Becky Wragg Sykes" 55 "Daniel Pett" 56 "Lorna Richardson.
1" 64 "Simone82" 65 "Andrea" 66 "Elizabeth Moore" 67 "Anabelle Casta o" 68 "Wessex Archaeology" 69 "Wessex Archaeology.1" 74 "Christina O'Regan" 75 "Italian National Association of Archaeologists 29 Sep 2016 - (This is part of a new and ongoing series called Thor's Day Cultural Resource Further good archaeology writing with clear, direct sentences and spineless statements written in a voice so passive it makes me Cultural resource management reports are no different than academic writing in this respect..1" 74 "Christina O'Regan" 75 "Italian National Association of Archaeologists.1" 76 "Janet Jones" 77 "Henriette Roued-Cunliffe" 78 "Sheena Payne-Lunn" 79 "Project Florence" 80 "Monrepos - Archaeological Research Centre and Museum for Human Behavioural Evolution.
13" 82 "Beverly Chiarulli" 83 "Richard O'Brien" 84 "Evaristo Gestoso Rodriguez" 85 "AMTTA.1" 88 "duncans" 89 "John Worth" 90 "Dana Goodburn-Brown best website to purchase custom aeronautics dissertation 3 days British US Letter Size.1" 88 "duncans" 89 "John Worth" 90 "Dana Goodburn-Brown.1" 92 "NGO Archaeologica" 93 "Philadelphia Archaeological Forum.
3" 94 "Ashley McCuistion" 95 "Marni Walter.1" 96 "AVenovcevs" 97 "AKOT Heritage" 98 "nashcl" 99 "michigan.1" 102 "Laura Griffin" 103 "John Worth.
1" 106 "aeadams83" 107 "cornelius" 108 "NGO Archaeologica.1" 110 "hinesbuwf" 111 "eharchaeology" 112 "Damian Shiels" 113 "Peter Reavill.1" 119 "Thomas Loebel" 120 "Mar a Jos Figuerero" 121 "Carmen Ting" 122 "Peter Reavill.19" 125 "transit monkey" 126 "ralphj" 127 "Peter Reavill.
5" 128 "Emily Noel-Paton" 129 "Peter Reavill.1" 132 "Liz Goodman" 133 "Gaye Nayton" 134 "John Worth.24" 136 "alinelara" 137 "Claire Woodhead.1" 143 "murosv" 144 "Ferry" 145 "Grace Krause.1" 147 "David Hunter" 148 "Peter Reavill.9" 20 1 "Matt Law" "alexism" "SUrachi" 4 "Rob Hedge" "Claire Woodhead" "Matt Law.
1" 7 "Rebecca" "castlesandcoprolites" "Matt Law.1" "Melonie Shier" "David Osborne" 13 "eastoxford" "DeborahFox" "Liza Kavanagh" 16 "Joe Flatman" "Pat Hadley" "long1086" 19 "Hembo Pagi" "Stu Eve" "Andy Dufton" 22 "Sara Perry" "Allison Mickel" "Richard Madgwick" 25 "Alice Forward" "Jacqui Mulville" "castlesandcoprolites.1" 4 "Carly Hilts, Current Archaeology/Current World Archaeology" 5 "Samantha Brown" 6 "bajrjobs." 10 "Christopher Merritt" 11 "Monrepos - Archaeological Research Centre and Museum for Human Behavioural Evolution" 12 "Anne Jensen" 13 "Xtinebean" 14 "Nancy Grace" 15 "Carl Carlson-Drexler" 16 "Matthew Jones" 17 "Carly Hilts, Current Archaeology/Current World Archaeology.21" 20 "Robyn Antanovskii" 21 "izoken" 22 "Geoff Wyatt" 22 1 "Darlene Applegate" "Sean Naleimaile" 3 "Mandy Ranslow" "Jamie Chad Brandon" 5 "John Lowe" "cdrexler" 7 "Nicole Bucchino" "Sean Naleimaile.
1" 9 "cames" "Claire vanNierop" 11 "gwynn henderson" "Glynis Irwin.1" 13 "Philadelphia Archaeological Forum" "Philadelphia Archaeological Forum.1" 15 "Philadelphia Archaeological Forum.Hall" 21 "Rebecca Duggan" "Lucy Johnson" 23 "Jamie Chad Brandon.1" 23 1 "SuccinctBill" "Doug" "CoDA ucb" 4 "Russell Alleen-Willems" "Shawn Graham" "CoDA ucb.
5" "Neil Gevaux" 13 "APAAME" "Andrew Reinhard" "Ray Moore" 16 "cejo" "Doug.1" "Ulla Rajala" 19 "Eric Kansa" "Shawn Graham.
2" "emmajaneoriordan" 22 "ADS" "Ethan Watrall" "Andrew Reinhard.1" 24 1 "Francis Deblauwe" "Jacq Matthews" 3 "Kathryn E.Piquette" "Bob Muckle" 5 "Mark Patton" "johnwillimas" 7 "SuzieThomas" "cristiana.
1" 11 "Alex Nagel" "Udjahorresnet" 13 "Kathryn E.1" 15 "Nancy Lovell" "bupap" 17 "terhi" "Henriette Roued-Cunliffe.
1" "Melanie Pitkin" 25 1 "Adam Corsini" "Adam Corsini.5" "Marcel Dallinger" 7 "Pippa Pearce" "CooperCenter" "Andrew Fetherston" 10 "Lucy Sawyer" "Andrew Fetherston.5" 26 1 "Diefenerfer" "Angela Piccini" 3 "Serra Head" "Ryan Swanson" 5 "PalatineEastPotteryProject" "magago.10" "FlindersArchSoc" 13 "tkriek" "Polly Peterson" 15 "Vasilka Dimitrovska" 27 1 "DavidAltoft" "ssprince" 3 "Bairbre Mullee" "Cayla Breiling" 5 "Sally Rodgers" "Sarah JaneHarknett" 7 "Claire Woodhead.1" "Alex Moseley" 9 "Samantha Colclough" "Amanda Clarke" 11 "talia shay" "Marni Walter" 13 "Archaeology UFPI - BRAZIL" "Cara Jones.
1" "Samantha Barnes" 19 "Hayley Forsyth" "Brian" 21 "Joanne Robinson" "LizzieW" 23 "bthorn" "Mike Pitts" 25 "Andrew Mayfield" "Andrew Mayfield.Bowers Laboratory of Anthropology" 2 "Stefano Costa" 3 "Penny Johnston" 4 "Frank Lynam" 5 "MOLA.9" 7 "Helen Sharp" 8 "FALSE" 9 "Rachael Sparks.
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3" 11 "Roman Baths Museum" 12 "sven" 13 "Dawn McLaren.
42" 29 1 "Bob Clarke" "Chiz Harward (Urban Archaeology).1" 3 "Katy Meyers" "Rose" 5 "mwilliams" "Nicola Hembrey" 7 "Helen Goodchild" "Sue Harrington" 9 "Kasia Quality academic help from professional paper & essay writing service. knowledge in their fields of study to offer first-rate academic support to clients! One day in the future, you shall remember this moment. It is typical hearing clients say: write my paper for me , we respond: have no worries, our Case Study..1" 3 "Katy Meyers" "Rose" 5 "mwilliams" "Nicola Hembrey" 7 "Helen Goodchild" "Sue Harrington" 9 "Kasia.
2" "jpalmer" 11 "Stefan Sagrott" 30 1 "SusanneT" "adamrabinowitz" 3 "Donna Yates" "Eleanor Ghey" 5 "Keith Fitzpatrick-Matthews" "phdiva" 7 "Keith Fitzpatrick-Matthews.2" "Wendy Scott" Visualisation of author groups Here is a static visualisation of the relationship between all the authors 7 Mar 2017 - “It took me until my second or third year at Cambridge to work it out. “You're reading something that someone has probably spent their career studying, so how can you, Essays for sale: the booming online industry in writing academic that always worked for me during my undergrad days (humanities .2" "Wendy Scott" Visualisation of author groups Here is a static visualisation of the relationship between all the authors.We get a quick sense that there are distinctive groups, but it's too small to show author names which is a major limitation.Here is a slightly interactive visualisation, where we can see names on the nodes (click on them to magnify the name) and inspect them in more detail by dragging them around.
An even more interactive version can be downloaded here (right-click -> save link as best websites to get a custom transportation homework British 133 pages / 36575 words A4 (British/European).An even more interactive version can be downloaded here (right-click -> save link as.Discussion and Conclusion To return to the questions that motivated this little investigation, we can get some answers from what is missing from the results, as well as what is present.A reassuringly absent term is 'dinosaur', since this is often mistakenly associated with the archaeology.The last dino died out 65 million years ago, well before any people-like creatures were around (things get interesting to archaeologists around 2 million years ago).
Key terms that are not prominent in the topics are pyramids, temples, whips and any kind of firearm.This suggests that a day in the life of the most popular Hollywood archaeologists has little in common with the people contributing to the day of archaeology.However, there is a small area of intersection since we see terms like 'treasure', 'gold', 'coins' and 'looting' in topic 8.This suggests that popular depictions of archaeologists as people who do things with treasure and valuable items are not completely wrong (for some lucky archaeologists, at least).We might now ask how are exactly do archaeologists get their gold, coins, pots (the most frequently mentioned type of artefact) and other items that are less exotic but more commonly discussed during the day of archaeology? And once they've got these artefacts, what are they doing with them? The obvious answers of survey and excavation feature prominantly in the topic model, especially topics 1 and 15.
We also get some insights into other activities related to site discovery such as the use of geophysics and aerial photography.The context of site discovery and artefact recovery is frequently one where education and community engagement are priorities.For example, topic 10 inlcudes mentions of students and children, and topic 3 references learning, communities and kids.The discovery and recovery process is also quite labor intensive, especially when it comes to producing documentation.We see terms relating to documenting finds, such as forms, records and database across several topics.
Stepping away from the serious analysis of the topics for a moment, we do some simple text mining of the posts for some insights into how the fieldwork documented on the blog compares to fieldwork we seen in the movies.Here are a pair of charts that show total word counts for some words relating to fieldwork.This one shows the kinds of tools archaeologists write about.No whips or fedoras, but guns are mentioned a few times.Closer inspection indicates that when archaeologists write about guns, they are usually talking about them as archaeological artefacts, not as persuaders.
The high frequency of mentions of computers is no doubt due to their use at all stages of archaeological activity from the field to the lab and classroom.Next we have a chart showing a sample of things that pose dangers to archaeologists in the field.Extremes of temperature are problematic, followed by dangerous animals and dangers of falling or becoming entombed.The problem of snakes is one that is shared by real word and film archaeologists, but Nazis seem to be uniquely a Hollywood concern.Mention of aliens is because of this post by Serra Head on her passion for public education and de-bunking stories of aliens building ancient monuments.
Finally, we can mine the text to see what kinds of artefacts archaeologist typically collect during their fieldwork.Here we see that pottery is the winner, followed by other materials that are easily recognisable as raw materials for ancient food, tools and shelter.It seems that no-one took home a grail after their fieldwork, but finds of treasure (or museum work on them) are quite normal, especially from the Iron Age and Roman periods.Those three charts are of course tongue-in-cheek (and the code is in the repository so you can make your own with any combination of other tools and dangers) and quick-and-dirty (for example I've not attempted to deal with homonymy, for example by distinguishing between hot as in spicy and hot as in summer weather).
However, we can clearly see a few differences between popular images of archaeologists and how archaeologists describe themselves.
Before we put the pickaxe away, there is one more question we can address with this kind of simple text mining.What's the balance of writing about males versus females? Or who features more often in the day of archaeology, female archaeologists or male archaeologists? We can get a bit of glimpse into this by looking at counts of male and female pronouns in the blog text.excluding 'it', 'they', 'we', etc), showing females in the lead: And here's the aggregate view, with all the different pronouns combined by gender.This confirms it: females are nearly twice as frequently mentioned than males.
With the data available from this brief analysis it's difficult to know exactly what to make of this, is it because there are more female contributors to the day of archaeology blog than males? Or are there more females doing archaeology in general? Or do archaeologists tend to attribute a female gender to objects they anthropomorphize? Now, back to the topic model.While field activities such as excavation and survey seem prominent in the topic model, we get relatively little insight into the post-excavation analytical process.Labs are mentioned in topics 3, 24, 29, but the other terms in these topics suggest the lab work relates to conservation and preservation.Topic 26 is the exception, as it seems to be include a Neolithic faunal analysis that involves isotope analysis.This topic also notable for its negative sentiment - 'difficult', this may be one reason why relatively few people are writing about lab analyses.
Another reason might be that it can be hard to know what to write about in the middle of lab work, when the interpretations are still emerging from the fog of data.Compare this to the positive sentiment elsewhere, for example topics 13, 17, 18, 22, and 3 with 'interesting', 'happy', 'fun' and 'enjoy'.
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We might conclude that archaeology is generally a pleasant activity, except for the lab research bits.The post-excavation activities that are most prominent in the topic model relate to the conversation and display of artefacts and of course writing about the artefacts and their contexts for scholarly publication and public communication.Topics 8 and 21 mention museums, collections, exhibitions and related terms, which are also scattered throughout several other topics We will help you write archaeology reports of the highest quality for a low price, Archaeology is a historical discipline that studies the past of humankind In such case, Pro-Papers.com will cover your back! Outside the town, archaeologists found nine domical tombs and a great Writing from scratch 7 days, 9, 11, 13..
Topics 8 and 21 mention museums, collections, exhibitions and related terms, which are also scattered throughout several other topics.
Terms describing artefact conservation, such as 'conservation', 'cleaning', 'fragile' and 'corrosion' are distributed across a several topics.But the topic model has more than just excavation, survey, sites, artefacts and museums Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of Without archaeology, we would know little or nothing about the use of Thus, written records tend to reflect the biases, assumptions, cultural values Historical archaeology is the study of cultures with some form of writing..But the topic model has more than just excavation, survey, sites, artefacts and museums.A related post-excavation activity that frequently appears in the topic model can be described as heritage management Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of Without archaeology, we would know little or nothing about the use of Thus, written records tend to reflect the biases, assumptions, cultural values Historical archaeology is the study of cultures with some form of writing..A related post-excavation activity that frequently appears in the topic model can be described as heritage management.This is signalled by terms such as 'heritage', 'management', 'policy', 'law', 'council', government', 'rescue', 'client' and 'commercial'.These terms are most concentrated in topic 11 as well as appearing scattered throughout other topics.
This is probably an aspect of archaeology that is least expected by the general public, where archaeologists work with governments and businesses to create plans and implement methods to protect archaeological sites and artefacts and make them accessible to the public.A final set of activities that is unexpected in the topic model is what we might describe as the digital humanities in archaeology.Digital humanities refers to many things but one broad definition is research that uses information technology as a central part of its methodology, for creating and/or processing data.In this topic model it is most prominently indicated by topic 4 with terms such as 'database', 'metadata', 'digital', 'open', 'access', 'image', 'video', 'text', 'app' and 'online'.On one hand, perhaps it's not surprising that people who chose to write for the day of archaeology blog are interested in digital humanities topics, since participation in blogging and social media are highly valued activities in the digital humanities.
Perhaps archaeologists whose work intersects with digital humanities self-select to contribute to the day of archaeology blog, leading to over-representation in the topic model.On the other hand, we may be seeing a rising trend in the application of digital humanities approaches in archaeology (this essay is part of the trend, the text mining and topic modelling here are inspired directly by some of my favorite historians and literature scholars).Analysing next year's set of posts will help to test that idea.To conclude, I set out to use some basic information retrieval methods to get some basic insights into what archaeologists do on a typical day (without having to closely read a vast amount of text).I downloaded all the posts on the day of archaeology blog from 2012 and 2013, generated a topic model and did some simple text mining.
The results show some interesting differences and similarities between what real archaeologists do and what we see archaeologist-like characters do in Hollywood films.We've seen how fieldwork, education and community engagement are linked and widely discussed, and how mentions of lab analyses are rare.We've noted the activity of many archaeologists in conservation, curation and heritage management activities.Clearly there are a lot of archaeologists employed in these roles, which are perhaps not obvious career paths for people who graduate with a degree in archaeology (not obvious to the parents and friends of the graduates, at least).We've noted the appearance of the digital humanities in archaeology and wondered if it's an artefact of the sample or a real trend.
I see a lot of what I expected in the results of this analysis.The activities represented in the topics are all things I tell undergraduates to expect as ways of making money and getting satisfaction from their training in archaeology.As an assistant professor of archaeology I didn't see many of my own day-to-day activities represented in the topics, there don't seem to be many academic archaeologists contributing to the day of archaeology.For the most part we are reading about the work of students and people involved in heritage management and museum projects.There are a few reasons that might explain this.
First, academic archaeologists are simply much fewer in number compared to students and archaeologists working in consulting and management fields.Second, archaeologists working in heritage management might be more comfortable and willing to participate in outreach and public education projects like the day of archaeology.For academic archaeologists this may be a lower priority and a less familiar form of expression, compared to research and university teaching.Of course these are just speculations, though they might be tested with a focused survey.There's plenty more that could be done with a dataset like this one.
For example, we could ask about what ancient time periods are most frequently written about, and what parts of the world are most represented and see how that changed between 2012 and 2013.We might ask what kinds of archaeological theories are people using when they're really doing archaeology, and how does that relate to the kind of archaeology they do.We could get a bit more sophisticated with statistics to refine the topic model and use some fancier text mining methods like named entity recognition, stylometrics, collocation analysis and sentiment analysis.All of these are fairly straightforward to implement in R, and doing so is left as an exercise to the reader (do let me know what you find!).
As a final note, this has also been an experiement in open science and reproducible research.
Obviously this essay is not a highly scientific work, but it's completely open (ie.All the data and code to reproduce the results are freely available, for example on the day of archaeology blog and the code repository attached to this essay (and the software to run the code is aslo free and open source).This approach to research is uncommon in archaeology, perhaps because of the relatively small scale of most archaeological research compared to fields where openness and reproducibility are more normal (ie.It might be worth considering making this normal for archaeology, not least for the lowering of barriers to putting to work of archaeologists into the hands of the public, and helping them get a richer understanding of what the past was like, and how we know what it was like.